代写essay,Play Based Learning

发布时间:2020-06-05 02:49


Hello, my name is _______. My presentation considers teaching and learning through play, and specifically how teaching and learning through play could improve the educational experiences of children in year 1 instruction.

[Put up powerpoint slide 1]

After reviewing the current year 1 guidance and practice, studying theorists who support formal teaching and those who promote Play Based learning, and critically evaluating the available information, I hope this presentation will convince you as well that Play Based learning deserves a significant place in year 1.


[Put up powerpoint slide 2]

Most recent year 1 guidance promotes a formal method for teaching and learning, with emphasis on literacy and numeracy activities such as the literacy hour (DfES 2005). This means teachers often stand in front of the class to explain material to their pupils, who read and complete written exercises such as worksheets to reinforce what has been presented. Proponents of this method of teaching and learning believe that to be effective education should be structured and rigorous (Hopkins 2003).

[Draw line down middle of flip chart. Write formal on one side of the line and Play Based on the other. Underline these headings. Under formal write structured and rigorous]

To their credit, some teachers use play without specific educational aims, which can result in wasted opportunities for learning. For example, Dewey contended, It is not enough just to introduce play and games Everything depends upon the way in which they are employed (1966, 196). In multi-year research, Adams et al documented positive gains when play was used purposefully as a teaching tool, but not so much when it was viewed as an addition to the real curriculum (2000, 163).

[Write purposeful on the formal side of the flip chart; sometimes not purposeful under the play side]

Siraj-Blatchford notes a serious lack of any hard research that supports formal educational methods, and goes on to question whether a narrow methodology, such as is typical of the formal classroom, can be effective for a diversity of teacher sand pupils (Siraj-Blatchford 1993, 405).

[Write teachers/pupils left out on the formal side of the flip chart]

Although few contemporary theorists or research support formal learning, it has strong political appeal, and allows leaders to emphasise they are using the public's tax monies well and giving solid instruction to pupils (Glickman 1984, 167; Woodhead 2002, 150). Attainment is viewed through assessments such as the SATs, which some contend measure pupils' knowledge rather than their understanding, and emphasise content over concept.

[Write politically good and learn content on the formal side of the flip chart]

Perplexingly, this same group supports Play Based learning just a year earlier in a child's schooling. At the Foundation stage curriculum is almost entirely Play Based. In fact, guidance for the Foundation stage "advocates play and exploration as a basis for literacy learning in the early years" and emphasises the importance of developing literacy through play" (Miller and Smith 2004, 122). This calls into serious question why the Foundation stage is primarily Play Based and year 1 has almost no teaching or learning through play. Does one year of age make that much difference in learning?

[Write questionable motives and no play not supported on the formal side of the flip chart]

In addition, some studies have found that the sharp change in teaching and learning methods is emotionally taxing on pupils, increases their stress levels, makes it more difficult for them to adjust in year 1, and reduces their ability to learn (Bedford 2003, 6).

[Write stressful and change reduces learning on the formal side of the flip chart]

In fact, some children begin to fail because they have difficulty adapting to this new method of teaching and learning (Bedford 2003, 6). Play has been shown to be an effective method for children to develop self-efficacy. Macintyre documents the desire to be right and succeed even in young children, which often causes them to avoid situations where they believe they will fail (Macintyre 2001, 4). In the Play Based Foundation stage, children could try things with no fear of failure making them more likely to stretch out and tackle things they might otherwise avoid" (Macintyre 2001, 4). In year 1 they are graded for either right or wrong answers, which may cause some to withdraw from learning experiences entierly.

[Write low self-efficacy and withdraw on the formal side of the flip chart]


[Put up powerpoint 3]

In examining how teaching and learning through play offers children a better educational opportunity, there is literally a wealth of theorists with all different kinds of research documenting the effectiveness of Play Based learning. "Piaget believed that children were active agents of their own learning and that the major task for them was to develop an ability to organize experiences and learn from them in a way which enables them to make sense of the world (O'Hagan and Smith 2004, 10). Dewey argued that this concept of experiential learning, where the pupil works with and manipulates objects and situations, is a significantly more effective as a teaching and learning method than is a concentration on content, where the pupil memorizes information from a book (Dewey 1966, 202).

[Write more effective on the play side of the flip chart]

Play Based teaching and learning gives children a context within which they can situate new information and concepts, and helps to keep children's intellect engaged and progressing (Dewey 1966, 234). Umek and Musek argue play encourages greater language comprehension development (Umek and Musek 2001, 56).

[Write gives context and promotes engagement on the play side of the flip chart]

Vygotsky advocated Play Based instruction well into late childhood, arguing that if the tools of thinking available to a child were changed, the child's mind would develop along a structure consistent with those tools (Vygotsky 1978, 126). Therefore children without experiential and Play Based learning do not develop critical thinking thought structures, but think along the lines of passive learning.

[Write increase critical thinking on the play side of the flip chart]

Froebel (1967) saw play as the free activity of the whole life of the pupil's mind in agreement with the child's whole life (Froebel 1967, 167). Bruner et al viewed play as itself a form of problem-solving, requiring self-initiation and increasing problem-solving abilities (Bruner et al 1976, 256). In addition, play reduced the stress in children, making them better able to focus and establish goals in their learning experience (Bruner et al 1976, 256).

[Write holistic, better problem-solving and reduces stress on the play side of the flip chart]

In the same vein as Bedford, they also found play reduced stress and therefore enhanced learning attainment (Bruner et al 1976, 256). Gardner argued that since all pupils do not learn in the same way, formal learning methods short-change all but those who happen to match the teaching of the instructor (Gardner 1991, 14).

[Write multiple learning preferences on the play side of the flip chart]

Finally, when properly structrued, play can be a means of effective assessment, where the teacher can see pupils act out their understanding and grasp of a subject. "Children can achieve higher levels of individual cognitive functions (conservation, one-to-one correspondence, decentration) in their symbolic play than they demonstrate when the same mental operations are tested and measured in formal, non-play, situations" (Umek and Musek 2001, 64).

[Write more accurate assessment on the play side of the flip chart]


If we step back and look at the pros and cons of Play Based learning in year 1, it becomes obvious that play is not only an effective means of teaching and learning, but often the most beneficial to the child.

I will close this presentation with a quote from Froebel.

[Put up powerpoint slide 4]

Because he learns through play a child learns willingly and learns much Play must not be left out of the elementary curriculum (Froebel 1967, 167).


Adams, S., Medland, P. and Moyles, J. 2000. Supporting Play Based teaching through collaborative practice-based research. Support for Learning, 15(4):159-164.

Bedford, G. 2003. Child's Play. Literacy Today, Sept03, 6.

Bruner, J.S., Jolly, A., and Sylva, K. 1976. Play - Its Role in Development and Evolution. New York: Basic Books.

Dewey, J. 1966. Democracy and Education. London: Collier-Macmillan.

DfES 2005. KEEP: Key Elements of Effective Practice. Primary National Strategy, available at www.dfes.gov.uk/publications, accessed 22 March 2006.

Froebel, F. 1967. A Selection from His Writings. I.M. Lilley (ed). Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.

Gardner, H. 1991. The Unschooled Mind. New York: Basic Books.

Glickman, C.D. 1984. Play in Public School Settings: A Philosophical Question. In Child's Play: Developmental and Applied, T.D. Yawkey and A.D. Pellegrini (eds).London: Lawrence Erlbaum, 255-271.

Hargreaves, L., Moyles, J., Merry, R., Paterson, F., Pell, A., and Esarte-Sarries, V. 2003. How do primary school teachers define and implement 'interactive teaching' in the National Literacy Strategy in England? Research Papers in Education, Sept2003, 18(3): 217-236.

Keenan, T. 2002. An Introduction to Child Development. London: Sage.

Macintyre, C. Enhancing Learning Through Play. London: David Fulton.

Miller, L. 2001. Shaping Early Childhood through the Literacy Curriculum. Early Years, 21(1): 107-116.

Miller, L. and Smith, A.P. 2004. Practitioners' beliefs and children's experiences of literacy in four early years settings. Early Years, 24(2): 121-133.

O'Hagan, M. and Smith, M. 2004. Early Years Child Care and Education: Key Issues. Edinburgh: Bailliere Tindall.

Piaget, J. 1962. Play, Dreams and Imitation in Childhood. New York: Norton.

Siraj-Blatchford, I. 1993. Educational Research and Reform: Some Implications for the Professional Identity of Early Years Teachers. British Journal of Educational Studies, Dec93, 41(4): 393-408.

Umek, L.M. And Musek, P.L. 2001. Symbolic Play: opportunities for cognitive and language development in preschool settings. Early Years, 21(1): 55-64.

Vygotsky, L.S. 1978 (original 1926). Mind in Society: The Developmental of Higher Psychological Processes. London: Harvard University Press.

Woodhead, C. 2002. Class War. London: Little Brown.



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最近1年的指导促进了正式的教学和学习方法,强调识字和算术的活动,如识字小时( 2005年技能部) 。这意味着老师经常站在学生,谁读并完成工作表,以加强已提交书面练习,如当着全班同学的解释材料。这种方法的教学和学习的支持者相信这是有效的教育应该是结构化和严格的( 2003年霍普金斯) 。
他们的信用,有的老师使用没有具体的教育目标,这可能会导致浪费的学习机会发挥。杜威主张,例如,刚引进游戏和游戏一切都取决于(1966 , 196 )的方式,他们是受雇于这是不够的。在多年的研究中,亚当斯等人记录了正收益,当该剧故意作为教学工具使用,但没有这么多,当它被看作是除了真正的课程(2000年, 163页) 。
西拉杰布拉奇福德注意到严重缺乏任何刻苦攻关,支持正规的教育方法,并质疑一个狭窄的方法,如是否是典型的与正规的课堂,可以有效多样化的教师沙子学生的(西拉杰布拉奇福德的1993年, 405) 。
虽然一些当代理论家或研究支持正规的学习,它具有强烈的政治诉求,并允许他们使用的是公众的纳税人的钱,并给予学生坚实的指示(格利克曼1984 ,167 ; Woodhead公司2002年, 150 )领导人强调。程度被视为通过评估,如SAT考试,其中一些抗衡衡量学生的知识,而不是他们的理解,并强调含量超过概念。
令人困惑的是,这同组支持播放基于学习仅仅一年早在孩子的教育中。在基础阶段课程几乎完全是基于播放。事实上,基础阶段的指导意见“ ,主张发挥和探索的基础扫盲学习在早年” ,强调培养识字能力的重要性,通过游戏“ (米勒和史密斯2004年, 122 )成严重的问题,这就要求为什么基础阶段主要是基于播放和今年1几乎没有通过游戏教学或学习一岁相差太大,学习?
此外,一些研究发现,情绪急剧变化,在教学和学习方法对学生负担,增加他们的压力水平,使得它更难以为他们调整在第1年,并降低他们的学习能力(贝德福德2003年6 )。
事实上,一些孩子开始失败,因为他们难以适应这种新的教学方法和学习( 6) 2003年,贝德福德。播放已被证明是一种有效的方法,让孩子养成自我效能。麦金太尔记录的愿望是正确的和成功,即使在年幼的孩子,这往往使他们避免的情况下,他们相信,他们将失败( 4) 2001年麦金太尔。在播放基于基金会阶段,孩子们可以尝试没有对失败的恐惧使他们更容易伸出和解决的事情,否则他们可能避免的事情“ ( 4) 2001年麦金太尔,在1年中,他们被分级为正确或错误的答案。这可能会导致一些退出的学习经验entierly 。
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在研究如何通过游戏的教学和学习,为孩子们提供一个更好的受教育的机会,实际上是一种财富的理论家与各种不同类型的研究记录的有效性,基于游戏的学习。 “皮亚杰认为,儿童是自己学习的积极推动者,他们的主要任务是发展的能力,组织的经验和向他们学习的方式,使他们能够将世界的感觉(奥哈根和史密斯2004 ,10) ,杜威认为,这个概念是一个显着的地方,瞳孔和操纵的对象和情形,体验学习,更有效的教学和学习方法比是一个集中的内容,学生记忆的信息从一本书( 202) 1966年,杜威。
播放为基础的教学和学习给孩子一个环境,使他们可以位于新的信息和概念,并有助于保持儿童的智力参与和进展( 234) 1966年,杜威。 UMEK Musek认为该剧鼓励更大的语言理解的发展( UMEK和Musek 2001,56 ) 。
维果茨基主张基于播放指令到童年后期,争辩说,如果一个孩子的思维的工具发生了变化,孩子的心灵将沿着一致的结构与工具( 126) 1978年,维果茨基发展。因此体验和播放基于学习的孩子没有不发展批判性思维的思维结构,但认为沿线的被动学习。
福禄贝尔(1967 )看到了发挥学生的心灵与孩子的一生( 167) 1967年,福禄贝尔在协议的整个生命活动的自由。布鲁纳等人观看比赛,本身就是一种解决问题,需要自我引发和提高解决问题的能力( Bruner等人, 1976年, 256 ) 。此外,播放应力降低的儿童,使他们能够更好地集中和建立他们的学习经验( Bruner等人, 1976年, 256 )的目标。
在同一静脉贝德福德,他们还发现,起到降低压力,因此,加强学习程度( Bruner等人, 1976年, 256) 。加德纳认为,以同样的方式,因为所有的学生不学习,正规的学习方法短期改变这一切,但那些谁碰巧相匹配的教学导师( 14) 1991年,加德纳的。
最后,正确structrued时,可以发挥有效的评估,老师可以看到学生的行为的理解和掌握的一门学科的一种手段。 “孩子们可以实现更高水平的个体的认知功能(保护,一到一一对应,偏心)在他们的象征性游戏比他们表现出相同的心理测试和测量操作正规,非戏,情况” ( UMEK和Musek 2001年, 64页)。
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因为他的孩子通过游戏学习愿意学习,学习多玩不得离开了小学课程(福禄贝尔1967年, 167页) 。
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