Engineering is oldest and the most important science ever. As people continue to advance in life engineering became the only way to use and develop tools and processes needed for surviving and advancement in creativity of the human beings. Engineering includes many sciences such as the knowledge of mathematics, the applied science of chemistry and physics and is considered the master of all sciences and the origin of minor specialties.
The Mesopotamians, one of the greatest and most ancient civilizations used engineering in their daily lives as they created the wheel and built water canals, and temples, also they've had great advancements in architecture such as pyramid like structures and towers. More than 4000 years have passed since that civilization yet the most complex astronomical instruments are based on the invention of the revolutionary Astrolabe. The main aim of the device is to be used in astronomical observations; it consists of a graduated circular circles and a sighting arm and was based on the 60-unit numerical system used at that time.
The greatest form of architecture created by the Mesopotamians is called the Ziggurat, a temple tower built to honour their gods and religious beliefs; it consists of a terraced pyramid of brick with steps, setbacks and a shrine at the top. Hammurabi, the king of Mesopotamians at that age assembled a system of laws that holds his name; it states that whoever builds poor structures should be penalized rightfully. Another Mesopotamians innovation is the Nahrwan, a 400 foot wide channel watering 200 miles of the land around.
The Ancient Egyptians were the first civilization to master construction; they had specialists who were consultants to pharaohs and were identified as chiefs of works. At that time surveying, and irrigation systems were invented. The best architectural structure in history was left by the Egyptians which are The Great Pyramids, the first pyramid was built for the burial of Zoser, symbolizing absolute power, and it contained six mastabas to prevent thieves from access to the tomb and the surrounding artefacts.
The largest Pyramid is Cheops' it's 481 feet high & has a 13 acre base, above two million blocks of stone with standard mass of 2.5 tons were used, the inner stones weighed up to 30 tons. 100, 000 men working for 20 years, the stone blocks were glided down a special ramp, using wood rollers, ropes, and sledges.
Greek Architects completed the progress to proficient stature, renowned as great construction professionals. The Greeks build great harbours overcoming any obstacles such as mountains, they were first to come with the ideas of artificial docks. In addition to their achievements is the Pharos lighthouse of Alexandria which was the first lighthouse ever built the Greek builder gathered wooden frames and levering devices that included capstans and pulleys.
Romans have discovered hydraulic cement, achieving pile drivers, treadmill hoists and wooden bucket wheels. They constructed the Circus Maximus at which roman fighting games and contests took place. The Pantheon was a temple built by the outstanding ability of a Roman Engineer and it had a special height equal to its internal diameter.
The middle ages are known for the great cathedrals, the enhancement of wind mills. The origin of the word Engineer is the Latin words In Generare which means to create. Engineers back then created war equipment such as catapults, and the discovery of gunpowder. Also the paper we use now was invented in the Far East.
Some advanced Scientists made it easier for the advancement of engineering, such as Leonardo Da Vinci a unique artist, talented architect, and scientist has contributions to the field of abstract designs.
美索不达米亚 工程是最古老和有史以来最重要的科学。随着人们在生活中继续推进工程成为创造力人类生存和进步所需要的工具和流程，使用和发展的唯一途径。工程包括许多学科，如数学，化学和物理应用科学的知识和被认为是所有科学大师和轻微特色的起源。 美索不达米亚，在日常生活中的工程，因为他们创造了车轮和内置水渠的最大和最古老的文明之一，寺庙，他们也已经有很大的进步，在建筑，如金字塔状结构和塔。超过4000年已经过去了，文明最复杂的天文仪器的基础上发明了革命阿斯特罗莱的。设备的主要目的，是天文观测中使用的，它包括一个带刻度的圆形的圆和一个瞄准臂，并根据当时使用60个单位的数值系统。 被称为最大的建筑形式由美索不达米亚的通灵塔，寺庙建塔，以履行他们的神和信仰，它由与步骤，挫折和神社在顶部的梯田砖金字塔。在这个年龄的美索不达米亚，国王汉谟拉比组建了一个系统的法律，持有他的名字;它指出，凡建立贫困结构，理所当然地应该受到惩罚。另一种美索不达米亚的的创新是Nahrwan ，一个400英尺宽的通道浇灌周围200英里的土地。 古埃及人是最早掌握建设文明，他们有专家顾问法老被认定为作品的酋长。当时测量和灌溉系统被发明。在历史上最好的建筑结构留下的埃及人是大金字塔的第一座金字塔，始建埋葬祖塞尔，象征着绝对的权力，它包含6个mastabas防止盗贼进入墓及周边文物。 最大的金字塔是胡夫“ ，它高481英尺和13英亩的基地，使用标准质量2.5吨以上两万块石头，内心的石头重达30吨。 100，000人工作20年，石头块滑翔下来一个特殊的坡道，用木辊，绳索，和雪橇。 希腊建筑师完成的进度，到精通的身材，被誉为伟大的建筑专业人士。希腊人构建大港口，克服任何障碍如山的，他们是第一次来人工码头的想法。除了他们的成就是灯塔亚历山大灯塔，希腊建设者聚集木制框架和撬设备包括绞盘和滑轮有史以来建造的第一座灯塔。 罗马人发现液压水泥， ， ，实现打桩机，跑步机吊木桶轮。他们构建马克西穆斯竞技场罗马格斗游戏和竞赛发生。万神殿是建祠以优异的罗马工程师的能力，它有一个特殊的高度等于其内部直径。 中世纪被称为伟大的教堂，风车增强。工程师一词的由来是拉丁词Generare这意味着创建。工程师当时创建的战争装备，如弹射器，并发现火药。我们现在使用的纸是在远东发明。 一些先进的科学家更容易为工程的进步，如达芬奇一个独特的艺术家，有才华的建筑师，科学家，有抽象的设计领域的贡献。