What is Global warming? Global warming refers to an average increase in the Earth's temperature, which in turn causes changes in climate (Global). Population growth, deforestation, and pollution have increased by a large margin from twenty, forty, or even a hundred years ago. Since the Industrial Revolution, machines have changed the way life we lived. Before the Industrial Revolution, human activity released very few gases into the atmosphere, but now through population growth, fossil fuel burning, and deforestation, we are affecting the mixture of gases in the atmosphere (Global). It is imperative that we, the people, take action on our dying environment, for the future of our kids and generations to come. Unless steps are taken to stop this progression of events, and even in spite of such steps, the vast majority of the evidence shows that the Earth will continue to grow warmer, with widespread and even catastrophic results.
How did we find out what was the cause of global warming? After doing some research, I learned that global warming is created by the greenhouse effect:
The greenhouse effect is the rise in temperature that the Earth experiences because certain gases in the atmosphere (water vapor, carbon dioxide, nitrous oxide, and methane, for example) trap energy from the sun. Without these gases, heat would escape back into space and Earth's average temperature would be about 60 F colder. Because of how they warm our world, these gases are referred to as greenhouse gases (Global).
Do you know what a greenhouse is? Have you ever seen houses with a small glass house in the backyard just for plants? Well these glass houses also known as a greenhouse. They are meant for plants to survive through the winter time by trapping heat within the house. Since, Earth's atmosphere is very much like the greenhouse model, energy from the sun passes through our atmosphere where energy is absorbed by the air, water, and plants. Once absorbed, the energy then releases itself back into the atmosphere and then releases into space. Without the greenhouse effect, our climate could be disastrous because the atmosphere regulates our climate. It could raise or lower the temperatures, misbalancing nature. Even though the greenhouse effect is good for the environment, it could also be bad. Since the atmosphere is filled with pollution, the energy re-releasing back into space sometimes gets trapped by the atmosphere and warms up the Earth's climate.
Pollution is one of the largest problems in today's environment. By emitting harmful gases such as carbon dioxide which are mainly released from cars and power plants, harmful gases will build up into the atmosphere. The harmful effects of gas build up in the atmosphere and can increase the temperature of the Earth which could endanger plants, cause wild weather patterns, or alter land formations (Global). There are many ways to increase the effects of global warming such as contamination, wastes, or deforestation.
One of the largest producers of pollution is power plants. According to the Environmental Protection Agency (EPA), turning on the television, using the washer/dryer, or even turning on a light can help lead to more greenhouse gases since they use electricity which originate from power plants. The fumes of power plants are created from the burning of fossil fuels which are released into the atmosphere. What is fossil fuel? According to the Greenhouse Effect article, fossil fuel originated from plants. Plants remove carbon dioxide from the air. When the plant dies, the remains are buried in the soil. After thousands and thousands of years, the carbon dioxide is transformed into a coal or oil which is fossil fuel. The General Accounting Office study forecasts a 42 percent surge in electricity production over the next two decades that will boost U.S. power plants' carbon dioxide emissions by 35 percent and mercury emissions by 9 percent (Eaton). Since the population of the world is growing each day; people are going to use more power which would create more fossil fuels being burned up and more power plants being built to accommodate the rate of the population.
Even though there are no inventions to make fossil fuel fumes to be more friendl to the environment, there are other alternatives to cut back on burning fossil fuels. By conserving power, we can cut back on electricity which could help by burning less fossil fuel. Part of the problem could be solved by converting these plants to burn cleaner natural gas (Overview). There are other alternatives to produce energy that don't come from power plants such as solar and wind energy. Solar energy is known to use solar panels to gather energy from a heat source such as the sun. This energy is gathered and stored in a flat panel where it is stored until the energy is consumed. Unlike Solar energy, there is another way to gather energy from our environment. Wind-power energy gathers energy from the wind. Have you ever driven in the highway and seen these large white fans on the top of a hill? Well, those fans are wind conservers. They act the same as solar but by the wind. The amount of energy increases depending on the speed of the wind. In other words, the faster it goes, the more energy is gathered. Technological advances have brought the cost of electricity generated by the wind down by 82 percent since 1981 (Overview).
Today, the average person usually drives himself/herself to work, travel, going or dropping someone off at school, yet do they know how much harm it can cause just to do an errand? With millions of cars driven each day, many harmful toxins are released from the cars exhaust. The amount of gases released can cause harmful effects to the environment and to health. Like power plants, cars are only small versions of power plants, but with so many of them being driven, it could be worse than power plants. The fumes of these cars can lead to breathing problems mainly for older people since their lungs are usually weaker.
Organophosphate insecticides, such as diazinon, disulfoton, azinphos-methyl, and fonofos, are used widely in agriculture and in household applications as pesticides. Over 25,000 brands of pesticides are available in the United States, and their use is monitored by the Environmental Protection Agency (EPA). The release of the pesticide can cause children or people, if inhaled, to cause malfunctions in their immune system because it mutants their cells.
To help the environment, technology can be very helpful in decreasing the greenhouse effect that is plaguing our environment. While there is no technology to remove C02 from a car's exhaust, we can make them pollute less by making them more fuel efficient (Overview). Creating cars that are fuel efficient can cut back on fuels being used by cars. Hybrid cars (Gas/Electric Cars) are being created that let you go over 800 miles before a fill up for fuel. Newer technology is allowing cars to run farther by using less gas by shifting the engine between electricity and gas. If we are to make any progress in slowing global warming, we must make our cars go farther on a gallon of gas (Overview).
Wastes are another large problem in our environment and a benefactor of global warming. Sometimes anti-environmental groups dump wastes into lakes and oceans where they could contaminate an area and misbalance the ecosystem. This can cause a problem because wastes could release hazardous materials that could be radioactive or very harmful that can cause people to be sick. Yet, do the people know what the effect of this waste can cause do to the environment? As a Norman Myers said, if we don't watch what we do with our resources and what we do to our environment, our resources will soon be depleted which will cause a huge conflict throughout the world.
Do you know where your trash is being dumped everyday? If you say in a landfill, you are correct. A landfill is where your trash is processed and compacted and stored. Yet what does the build up of landfill have to do with global warming? The trash that we send to landfills produces a greenhouse gas called methane. It is a product of decomposition of organic matter and of the carbonization of coal. Methane is one of the greenhouse gas chemical compounds. Methane is also produced by the animals we raise for dairy and meat products and when we take coal out of the ground (Global).
Like power plants and cars, trash can be very hazardous in the build up of the greenhouse effect. Since trash and wastes are getting overcrowded in landfills it could lead to trouble in the near future. Running out of room to store our wastes, there are ways of shortening the load of trash by recycling. Recycling is the process of reusing waste to make new material. Even though the public thinks recycling is good, it can also be bad.
The use of sewage sludge as a fertilizer poses a more significant lead threat to the land than did the use of leaded gasoline. All sewage sludges contain elevated concentrations of lead due to the nature of the treatment process... Lead is a highly toxic and cumulative (Stauber 108).
Recycling wastes to create fertilizer on plants can harm farmers and ruin agriculture. The material in these wastes is very harmful because it could be contaminated with unnatural substances. Land spreading of sewage sludge is not a true 'disposal' method, but rather serves only to transfer the pollutants in the sludge from the treatment plant to the soil, air and ground water of the disposal site (Stauber 109).
Destroying nature can also shorten the life span of the Earth. Deforestation, the process of cutting down trees could disturb the ecosystem or the environment. According to the EPA, The projected 2C (3.6F) warming could shift the ideal range for many North American forest species by about 300 km (200 mi.) to the north (EPA). Since trees remove carbon dioxide from the air, cutting down the trees would only result in climate changes. If the climate changes slowly enough, warmer temperatures may enable the trees to colonize north into areas that are currently too cold, at about the same rate as southern areas became too hot and dry for the species to survive (EPA). Due to deforestation and global warming, the shift of climate change dries up the soil which would be impossible to grow anything. This is how deserts are created. The percentage of the world's plants threatened with extinction is much larger than commonly believed, and could be as high as 47 percent if tropical species are included, researchers said (Study).
How can we help stop the people who are cutting down the trees? By doing the opposite, planting trees would help the environment since it removes carbon dioxide, a greenhouse gas. At the rate of planting one tree is about the same rate of thousands of trees being cut down. Regulating tree cutting companies would slow down the process of deforestation but it is still a problem because wood is very high in demand for housing and construction.
How is nature holding up against global warming? The effects of global warming have destroyed thousands of homes by floods, created new diseases, and have left hundreds homeless to the rampage of awkward weather patterns. Global warming effects do not just change the temperatures; they can lead to the change of weather patterns and the rise of sea levels. Devastating floodsjust some of 526 significant natural disasters in the first nine months of the yearripped through parts of Europe, China, India, Nepal, and Bangladesh this year, killing thousands of people and leaving millions more homeless. Even though some nations might get positive effects such as aiding against droughts, other nations would get consequences from global warming (UN).
The change of weather patterns can be very disastrous to nature and the sea since it alters the ecosystem. By changing the ecosystem, animals and vegetation are pushed out of their habitat and into a different location. Wild life isn't able to adapt to the new environment easily because they wouldn't know where to gather food or conflicts with other species. Weather patterns can create tsunamis (large tidal waves) which would crash into coastal regions creating erosions.
Sea levels are rising due to the rise of temperature due to global warming. Sea level may rise between several inches and as much as 3 feet during the next century (EPA). Due to the melting of glaciers, water is rising from the ocean which is saltwater and it can spread or flood inland threatening plants and animals.
If we do not help the environment now, our planet won't exist in the near future. It is important that the people understand that harming the planet to a degree can cause the extinction of the Earth. Rise of temperature, change in weather patterns, toxic wastes lurking in our air, we are vulnerable. If we want to survive on this planet in the future, we must act now before it is too late. Steps need to be taken to cut back and slow down global warming until newer technology can alter and to help the longevity of our world.
生物质能源 广泛的传播，可再生能源发电源提供正确的知识，国家控制和技术如何利用生物质能源，既可以改变地球的环境和我们的态度替代能源资源。要明白怎么会发生这种情况，什么生物质能的基本知识，以及它是如何工作将提交。所有的有机物，如农业残余物，木材和动物废物，能源作物，和甲烷，是一个潜在的通生物质能（ http://www.mna.hkr.se/ ～ ene02p10/biomass.htm ）的。生物质能可所产生的无论是种植作物，特别是为这个目的（如甘蔗，大豆，玉米，红薯，玉米，柳树和桉树） ，或将有机废物（ http://www.inforse.org/europe/ dieret /生物/ biomass.html ） 。有机物可燃烧以产生热量，像老木生火，或者他们可以生产乙醇或其他的酒精燃料“ （ http://www.mna.hkr.se/ ～ ene02p10/biomass.htm ）的。可敬的科学界之间有不同的意见，并有不同的参数进行分析和对生物质能的利用，以便作出明智的决定，关于生物质能。 提倡使用生物能源有许多的参数。正如我们所看到的温室效应增加，趋势是开始使用可再生能源发电来源。因为为了要生产生物质能只需要有机物质，其生产所需的任何化学物质，它有资格作为一种清洁的可再生电源。由于这些原因，生物质能产生比化石燃料排放量远远低于空气。更强大的温室气体中，甲烷，可用于生产生物质的能量，从而减小了在大气中的甲烷含量。生物质材料往往是浪费从现有的工业活动，否则将被出售的产品 - 在相当大的成本。例如，如果你烧不可用废料如树皮，建筑垃圾和树剪报，可以减少压力，要求扩大当地的垃圾填埋场，同时产生有用的能源（ http://www.canren.gc.ca/tech_appl/index.asp CAID = 2＆ PGID = 62 ）。 生物质能减少对化石燃料的依赖可能进口的，其价格因此受经济变量和/或政治问题。生物能源具有普遍对当地的经济产生积极的影响。生物燃料是笨重的，具有低能量密度，所以它是不经济的长距离运输。因此，所花的钱购买生物燃料一般保持在当地（ http://www.canren.gc.ca/tech_appl/index.asp?CaId=2&PgId=62 ） 。由于生物质能源在当地生产，创造数以千计的就业机会，在当地的规模，因为它是劳动密集型的创建生物质能。因此，生物能源的生产有助于振兴农村社区。从农业残余物，如稻草或玉米秸秆，或去除死亡，患病或低质量的树木从森林收集，没有专用设备的投资可以得到额外的收入。 不过，也有与上述矛盾的论点。科学家发现两九次之间尽可能多的碳通过燃烧生物燃料代替汽油将被保存超过30年，造林隔离。 “你得到更多的种植森林固碳比你避免在同一块土地生产生物燃料的排放量，说：”一个的prominents科学家不可持续的，不受控制的自然的，甚至处女生态系统转换成能量管理种植园，以生产适合生物质能源材料，加速有机物质衰变的结果可能会导致从土壤中的碳释放。 （ http://www.ecology.com/archived-links/biomass-energy/index.html ） 。它已经建立，自年初以来，农业在巴西的大豆， 700万公顷的亚马逊雨林已转换成能量的种植园。因此，关注环保的森林的破坏表示关注，以便使生物质作物，如玉米和甘蔗的空间，已经实现。说，保护世界土地信托机构，旨在保护雨林， Renton Righelato的， “当你这样做，你立即释放100吨和200吨的碳每公顷[ ]”适合用于生产生物能源作物种植的另一个副产品是生物多样性的丧失。自然生态系统转变成一个非常小的一些作物的种植能源，作为一个很少，可以大大减少一个地区的生物多样性。这种“单一种植”缺乏一个多样化的生态系统达到平衡，容易受到广泛的破坏害虫或疾病（ http://www.ecology.com/archived-links/biomass-energy/index.html ）的。 另一重要原因是，有可能根本没有足够的土地来种植能源作物和粮食作物的同时。据一家英国的调查，在英国是最有生产力的能源作物油菜籽平均单产为每公顷3-3.5吨一吨菜籽油生产生物柴油415公斤，每公顷耕地可提供1.45吨的运输类燃料。公路运输在英国消耗37.6米万吨，石油产品一年（ http://www.sovereignty.org.uk/features/eco/fuelines.html ） 。需要种植以生产生物柴油的数量等于化石燃料37.6米吨的总公顷。将大致25.9米公顷。英国没有这么多的耕地。在巴西的情况下，亚历山大·孔塞桑， MST （失地工人运动）的成员，指明了方向是走向全球市场的关于能源作物种植园，没有考虑到国内生产的食品（ http://ipsnews.net / news.asp中？ idnews = 38051 ） 。因此，有可能是任何对外国化石燃料的依赖，但也有可能对外国食品出口的依赖。 也有对未来的能源作物种植的预定位置的参数。已经有，非洲耕地转换成能源作物种植，既全球变暖将解决和非洲人将帮助的建议。有人说，这一战略“提供了可持续发展的道路，为许多非洲国家可以生产生物燃料便宜” （ http://www.sovereignty.org.uk/features/eco/fuelines.html ） 。尽管棕榈油可以生产四倍多的生物柴油每公顷油菜籽生长在劳动力便宜的地方，种植它已经是世界热带雨林破坏的主要原因之一（ http://www.sovereignty.org.uk /功能/生态/ fuelines.html的）。很明显，以这种方式生产生物质能源将产生严重的环境后果。 可能创造就业机会也受到怀疑。目前已经在巴西大约抗议'奴役'的甘蔗种植园的工人面临的条件。 “这一政策的社会成本是2.50雷亚尔（1.28美元） ，在不稳定的条件下，已经造成数百名工人死亡谁砍一吨甘蔗的季节工人与军队的过度劳动， ”亚历山大说，孔塞桑的MST （ http://ipsnews.net/news.asp?idnews=38051 ） 。农村里约热内卢大学的卡米拉·莫雷诺说， 乙醇行业的增长注入生命'一个现代版的甘蔗种植园的奴隶劳动的过去，随着一种新形式的“生态帝国主义的扩张。 ”莫雷诺指出，已经购买了大片土地（主要是美国和欧洲）国际投资基金，这带来了一种新形式的资本主义' ，这是不熟悉巴西（ http://ipsnews.net/news.asp ？ = 38051 idnews ） 上述声明表明，不仅做的巴西人民，作为一个整体，不从生物质能生产中获益，而且还猥琐的条件下为他们的工作和工作的实际工人没有适当奖励。