English Language Teaching ISSN E-ISSN 1916-4750 代写

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English Language Teaching ISSN  E-ISSN 1916-4750 代写
English Language Teaching; Vol. 9, No. 6 ISSN 1916-4742   E-ISSN 1916-4750  Published by Canadian Center of Science and Education  199  The Relationship between Multiple Intelligences and Listening  Self-Efficacy among Iranian EFL Learners  Department of English Language and Literature, Hakim Sabzevari University, Iran  Correspondence: Mohammad Davoudi, Department of English Language and Literature, Hakim Sabzevari  University, Iran. E-mail: davoudi2100@gmail.com    Received: March 20, 2016      Accepted: May 10, 2016   Online Published: May 15, 2016  doi: 10.5539/elt.v9n6p199       URL: http://dx.doi.org/10.5539/elt.v9n6p199    Abstract  The present paper aimed at investigating the relationship between listening self-efficacy and multiple intelligences  of Iranian EFL learners. Initially, ninety intermediate male learners were selected randomly from among 20  intermediate classes in a Language Academy in Yazd. In order to assure the homogeneity of the participants in  terms of overall language proficiency, PET was administered to the learners. Afterwards, based on the standard  deviation and mean, 60 participants were chosen from among the original ninety learners. Following that, the  learners were asked to complete the listening self-efficacy and multiple intelligences questionnaires. The results of  statistical analysis indicated that there was a significant relationship between total multiple intelligence scores and  the Listening self-efficacy of the learners. Moreover, all of the intelligence types, except kinesthetic intelligence as  well as verbal and visual intelligence were significantly related to Listening self-efficacy. Additionally, it was  found that interpersonal intelligence uniquely explained 5.4 percent of the variance in Listening self-efficacy  scores and is thus the best predictor of listening self-efficacy scores.  Keywords: listening, self-efficacy, listening self-efficacy, intelligence, multiple intelligences  1. Introduction  Listening in English as a Foreign Language (EFL) seems  to have an important role as a source of input for  language learners. Carter and Nunan (2001) defined listening as the term which is used in language teaching to  refer to a complex process that allows us to understand spoken language. Listening comprehension requires the  linguistic and background information to be processed online (Gonen, 2009) as well as accommodating the  uncontrollable speed of delivery. Thus, listening comprehension is concerned with a great amount of mental and  cognitive processes (Vandergrift, 1999). This may result in a kind of anxiety related to listening demands  especially within the context of second language (Vogely, 1999; Gonen, 2009). Another important cause of FL  listening anxiety is what Joiner (1986) calls negative listening self-concept which also causes the anxiety related to  listening. As Jointer (1986) puts it, this negative self-concept at times results from low self-confidence and having  no self-efficacy.    Research shows a negative correlation between listening-related anxiety  and the performance on listening  comprehension (e.g. Elkhafaifi, 2005; Golchi, 2012; Ghapanchi & Golparvar, 2012; Serraj & Noordin, 2013). In  contrast, it has been shown that there is a positive relationship between confidence in listening and listening  comprehension (Chen, 2008; Magogwe & Oliver, 2007; Rahimi & Abedini, 2009). One of the factors which might  bear relevance to the concept of self-efficacy in general and listening self-efficacy in particular is multiple  intelligences. Multiple Intelligence Theory (MI) has broadened the vision of educators in general and language  educators in particular specifically for its implications for classroom instruction (Baum, Viens, & Slatin, 2005;  Fogarty & Stoehr, 2008; Viens & Kallenbach, 2004. Multiple Intelligence Theory (MI) is not at all a novel theory.  It has been worked on since the 1980s. Howard Gardner introduced MI for the first time in the eighties (Gardner,  1983), yet it received more attention in English Language Teaching field since the last decade.    Considering the fact that intelligence is an integral element of learning, some scholars (e.g., Geimer, Getz, Pochert,  & Pullam, 2000; Kuzniewski, Sanders, Smith, & Urich, 1998) have suggested the integration of MI instruction in  teaching different school subjects such as mathematics, biology, and language arts. They believe that effective  teaching based on MI theory makes students aware of their weaknesses and strengths (Yi-an, 2010), engages them  in their learning process, and makes them responsible for the way they demonstrate their learning (Chen, 2005). www.ccsenet.org/elt  English Language Teaching  Vol. 9, No. 6; 2016  200    With the help of this theory, language teachers can create flexible, reflective, logical, and creative activities by  considering students’ individual differences (Christison, 1998) and thus more students may find success in schools  (Gilman, 2001). Given the significance of the notion of self-efficacy and its close times with multiple  intelligences, the present study aims at investigating the relationship between listening self-efficacy and multiple  intelligences of Iranian EFL learners.    2. Literature Review  2.1 Self-Efficacy and Listening  Bandura (1997) gives the definition of self-efficacy as “beliefs in one’s capabilities to organize and execute the  courses of action required to produce given attainments”  (p. 3). This definition of self-efficacy presumes that  various individuals vary in terms of the levels of self-efficacy under specific circumstances. This theory maintains  that individuals with various degrees of self-efficacy (low level and high level) are also different in terms of their  perceptions of the activity they need to do as well as the volume of the work and their perceptions concerning these  two are the two important components and sources of self-efficacy. He argues that various people have different  levels of self-efficacy, with those individuals having low level of this construct being doubtful with regards to their  abilities and capabilities. These individuals experience problems and difficulties dealing with the stress and  anxiety emanating from low level of self-efficacy, leading to their giving up of the task at hand. In contrast,  individuals enjoying high levels of self-efficacy firmly confide in their capacity to succeed, keeping on working on  the tasks and activities. Bandura has also defined self-efficacy (1997, p. 21) as “people’s judgments of their  capabilities to organize and execute courses of action required to attain designated types of performance”. Thus,  self-efficacy is one's belief in individual capacities and abilities of conducting a certain task rather than the real  abilities the individual has.    Successful performance is not merely guaranteed by individual's high level of self-efficacy and his enthusiasm for  doing something. As a matter of fact, these individuals may end up failing. Yet, individuals enjoying high level of  self-efficacy are not driven to hide themselves behind outside factors like the physical conditions in a context or the  fact that they suffer from disadvantages as individuals with low self-efficacy do. On the contrary, they believe they  need to work harder for achieving success as well as to try to obtain control over “potential stressors or threats”  (Bandura, 1997, p. 39). These characteristics of individuals with high level of self-efficacy makes them distinct  from individuals who have low level of self-efficacy. This allows them to have very good performance.    The words “helpless” and “mastery-oriented” (p. 5) are used by Dweck (2000, p. 5) to account for how different  learners react to failure. Individuals in the low self-confidence group avoid keeping on a task should it be  challenging for them. These individuals have a negative perception of themselves, thinking they are unable to cope  with the difficulties they are experiencing. They believe that their failure is a reflection of “their whole intelligence  and perhaps their self-worth” (p. 10). In contrast, individuals in the mastery-oriented group focus on completing  the activity without becoming doubtful about their abilities and capabilities. They seek to find the solution to the  problems and difficulties by learning strategies and techniques that are different from those they have already used.  Moreover, they enjoy using this process.    The distinctive qualities of the individuals in the helpless group characterize them as low self-efficacy group of  people. In contrast, mastery-oriented people are characterized as individuals who have high level of self-efficacy.  According to Dweck (2000, p. 8), the reduced number of correct answers and the increased number of incorrect  answers given by the individuals “may be because the failures were so meaningful to them”. Individuals in the  helpless group believe they themselves and not their performance are a failure. Learners in the other group, namely  mastery-oriented, however, could give the exact correct number of answers (both correct and incorrect ones). Their  ability to remember the number of correct answers can be probably attributed to the fact that they did not torment  themselves about the failure. These individuals conceded where they had failed and sought to have better  performance the next time.    When it comes to teaching and learning foreign language, there needs to be a focus on those foreign language  learners who have low level of self-efficacy for listening comprehension. A study conducted by Yang (1999) on  Taiwanese college students showed that despite the fact that most of these learners mentioned the need to acquire  English listening skills, more than half of them maintained that learning such skills was more difficult compared to  learning other domains of English learning including reading and writing.    A study conducted by Pajares (2006) showed that learners having higher self-efficacy outperform those learners  with lower self-efficacy although there is not any relation between self-efficacy and listening self-efficacy. This is  because self-efficacy is a reflection of how capable people believe they are instead of how capable they actually are  (Pajares, 2006).   www.ccsenet.org/elt  English Language Teaching  Vol. 9, No. 6; 2016  201    A study conducted by Zimmerman and Cleary (2006) showed that self-efficacy has a significant impact on  personal academic performance. This is because only having knowledge and  capacities do not necessarily  guarantee the effective use of self-efficacy under difficult circumstances. They argued that many factors can act as  barriers in the way of learning, preventing learners from behaving effectively. Learners who have high  self-efficacy cope effectively with the challenges and they are predicted to perform successfully. Many studies that  have investigated the correlation between self-efficacy and academic performance have confirmed the arguments  given by Zimmerman and Cleary (2006).    Caprara et al。  (2008) in a study concluded that having high level of self-efficacy for self-regulated learning in  middle school led to higher grades. A study conducted by Moos and Azevedo (2009) showed a positive effect  computer self-efficacy has on learning performance as well as learning processes. The impact of self-efficacy on  problem-solving efficiency has been examined by other studies (Hoffman & Spatariu, 2008, Malouff et al, 2007),  self-regulations (Bandura & Jourden, 1991; Schunk, 1983; Caprara et al, 2008), and  anxiety (Wilfong, 2006;  Schwarzer & Hallum, 2008).    A review of previous studies (e.g. Gist, 1987; Bandura, 1977; Salomon, 1984) shows that academic performance  can be predicted by self-efficacy. Perceptions and beliefs regarding self-efficacy are a good predictor of academic  achievement since these beliefs regarding one's capabilities in performing task will influence the behaviors in  future. Learners in academic contexts vary in terms of their self-efficacy and behave differently with regards to  both endurance and persistence. Research shows that learners who have low self-efficacy participate in fewer  efforts and quit more easily in the face of challenges. This leads to weak performance, decreasing their  self-efficacy. Learners who have high self-efficacy in their abilities of doing certain tasks make greater attempts  and endure longer even in the face of difficulties or challenges (Gist, 1987; Bandura, 1977; Salomon, 1984).    The findings of various studies (Schunk, 1996; Zimmerman et al, 1992; Schunk & Hanson, 1985; Pajares, 1996)  indicate that self-efficacy which impacts learners’ behaviors can predict academic performance in a better way  than actual abilities since learners with the same level of capacities but different amounts of self-efficacy have  different behaviors with respect to both efforts and persistence, influencing their academic performance. However,  Pajares & Valiante (1997) maintain that this does not imply that they can be  successful. Individuals can  successfully reach positive results even beyond their abilities since desirable performance entails both self-efficacy  and required skills and knowledge. The attitudes and activities of individuals toward the knowledge and skills are  determined by the way in which people perceive their own capabilities. Personal efficacy beliefs also impact the  quality of knowledge and skills acquisition.    Self-efficacy can predict the subsequent performance. In the same way, individuals’ beliefs regarding capabilities  and abilities for conducting certain tasks impact learners’ behaviors. However, a review of literature shows that  self-efficacy for learning has been distinguished from self-efficacy for performance with respect to task familiarity  (Schunk, 1996; Schunk, 1989; Zimmerman et al, 1992). They argued that when learners know the tasks, they form  self-efficacy related to the tasks performance by analyzing and interpreting the prior successes and acquired skills.  At this level, performance can be predicted well by performance self-efficacy. However, when learners have no  familiarity with tasks, they are likely to judge the capabilities on the basis of relevant skills since they have no idea  about what skills will be necessary for the tasks. Schunk (1989) argued that at this level, learners’ self-efficacy  comes from their perceived capacities for self-regulatory  learning. They judge about  the extent to which their  learning similar skills in the past was effective, the tasks would require what kinds of techniques and skills, how  easily new skills would be mastered, and what the quality of monitoring the learning performance would be.  Self-efficacy for performance is one of the variables that can predict performance since it displays the individual  differences contributing to the quality of performance. However, studies show the significance contributions  self-efficacy for learning make to subsequent performance, skills as well as self-efficacy assessments (Schunk,  1996; Zimmerman et al, 1992; Schunk & Hanson, 1985; Pajares, 1996).    Wu (1998) in his study found out that lower-proficiency listeners were more inclined to employ top-down  processing to compensate for their lack of linguistic  knowledge. Renandya and Farrell (2011) in their study  concerning strategy-instruction believe that the technique of strategy-based instruction should not replace basic  language teaching. In his investigation Zeng (2007, p. 89) believes that “listening practices in word recognition,  phonological rules, rhythmic groupings, tone placements, intonation rises and falls, and in discriminating  differences in word order and grammatical form should be put in priority for low-intermediate listeners in listening  classrooms” .  Chang and Read (2006) studied the effect of key word method on listening comprehension and discovered that  after being exposed to the key words found in the listening materials, lower-proficiency students’ attention was www.ccsenet.org/elt  English Language Teaching  Vol. 9, No. 6; 2016  202  English Language Teaching ISSN  E-ISSN 1916-4750 代写 often drawn to local cues involving those pre-taught words and consequently failed to catch the overall picture of  the spoken text. A study conducted by Chang (2006) revealed that the linguistic threshold for L2 listeners is  required in order to help learners to attain to have improvement in listening comprehension.  Graham, Santos, and Vanderplank (2011) found that teachers believe that listening instruction is very difficult.  They believe that most teachers in teaching listening utilize the “comprehension approach” proposed by Field  (2008). Andon and Eckerth (2009) examined teachers’ beliefs on task-based language teaching (TBLT). They  further investigated the ways “published accounts [of TBLT] are reflected in teachers’ pedagogic principles” (p.  286) in ELT context. Andon and Eckerth came to the conclusion that their participants were aware of main  principles from the TBLT literature but this knowledge was limited to a small number of articles and some of its  main themes were reflected in their teaching and discussions of their practice. In a study conducted by Basturkmen  (2012) he found out that the level of correspondence between beliefs and practices for experienced teachers is  higher than that of novice teachers.  2.2 Multiple Intelligences  Today, what one can do is more widely thought than what one does with the advances in the field of education  and psychology. Multiple intelligence theory has been proposed to take into account sider new training methods  for his purpose. After reviewing traditional intelligence approach, Neuropsychology and development expert  Gardner proposed for the first time seven different universal capacities in his book ‘’ Frames Of Mind’’ which  was published in 1983 (Lash, 2004). In 1983, Gardner set forth that any individual has a variety of intelligence  degree (mathematical-logical, verbal-linguistic, musical-rhythmic, bodily kinesthetic, intrapersonal, social,  visual-spatial and nature) and this revealed multiple intelligence theory which describes the learning styles,  interests, capabilities and tendencies of individuals.  Multiple Intelligences Theory (MIT) is a new vision questioned by educators and language educators specifically  for its application in the language classroom. Multiple Intelligence Theory (MIT) is not at all a novel theory; It  has been worked on since 1980s. Howard Gardner introduced MIT for the first time in eighties (Gardner, 1983),  yet it received more attention in English Language Teaching field since the last decade. This interest correlates  with language educators’ interest in maximizing the language learning. Intelligence is a psychological notion  connected with learning on which educators base a lot of  their professional decisions. Since the late nineteenth  century and early twentieth century, various theories about intelligence have been put forward, and many  attempts to define and to measure human intellectual capabilities have been made.  The notion of intelligence has a great effect on ones’ educational opportunities, job selection and social status  (Christison, 1998). The existence of different theories  of intelligence indicates that intelligence is a vibrant  concept in psychology (Akbari and Hosseini, 2008). Many philosophers and psychologists have accepted the  notion that intelligence has a lot to do with being flexible in following one’s goals. This means that there are as  many types of human intelligence as there are types of human goal. The Multiple Intelligences Theory (MIT),  proposed in the early 1980s by Gardner, provided evidence that there are several independent ability areas,  unlike traditional general intelligence concentrating on a narrow range of two logical-mathematical and linguistic  intelligences. He redefined the concept of intelligence as a "bio-psychological potential to process information  that can be activated in a cultural setting to solve problems or create products that  are of value in a culture"  (Gardner, 1999, pp. 33-34).  Recent interest in the field of foreign/second language  education has focused on research topics related to  individual differences and personal factors. Individual differences, which is a widely current expression in the  foreign language teaching field, refers to the different levels of success or failure that foreign language learners  can be expected to meet (Diller 1981; Skehan 1989; Sparks 1995). In fact, the focus on individual differences  has been a highly important theme both in general education and language learning based on the premise that  “pedagogy is most successful when these learner differences are acknowledged in teaching” (Richard-Amato,  2003, p. 114). Numerous contributory language and non-language factors to explain those differences have been  examined during the recent years (Brown 1994; Ellis 1985; Gass & Selinker 1994; Larsen-Freeman & Long,  1991; Spolsky 1989. It is believed that one of the most noteworthy and conspicuous constructs that differentiates  human beings is intelligence (Lubinski, 2000).  2.2 Research Questions  Q1: Is there any significant relationship between multiple intelligences as a whole and listening self-efficacy?  Q2:  Is there any significant relationship between each one of the multiple intelligences and listening  self-efficacy? www.ccsenet.org/elt  English Language Teaching  Vol. 9, No. 6; 2016  203  Q3: Which one of the multiple intelligences best predicts listening self-efficacy?  3. Method    3.1 Participants  The original participants of the present study were 90 intermediate language learners studying English in a  Language Academy in Yazd, Iran. They ranged in age from 18 to 26. The initial ninety participants were selected  randomly from among 20 classes of the intermediate level available at the time of this study at this language  academy. To this end, 7 such classes were chosen. The  participants were mostly university students. All the  participants were male learners. Preliminary English Test (PET) was administered to the initial 90 intermediate  subjects. The results of this test were used to select 60 homogeneous participants. To this end, drawing on the mean  and standard deviation, sixty learners were chosen.  3.1.1 Selecting the Homogenized Participants    As mentioned earlier, to homogenize the intermediate participants of the study with respect to overall language  proficiency, PET was given to the 90 initial subjects selected randomly from a larger pool. Table 1 and Figure 1  display descriptive statistics and the histogram of the participants’ PET scores, respectively.      Table 1. Descriptive Statistics of the Original 90 Intermediate Participants’ PET Scores    N  Minimum  Maximum  Mean  Std. Deviation  PET Scores  90  28.00  50.00  38.82  5.429  Valid N (list wise)  90          According to the results of the analysis reported in  Table 3, there is a significant correlation between Total  multiple intelligences and Listening self-efficacy, ρ = .33, n = 100, p < .01. Therefore, it is concluded that there  is a significant relationship between total multiple intelligence scores and the listening self-efficacy of the  learners.   4.3 Answering the Second Research Question    The second research question of the study addressed the relationship between EFL learners’ listening  self-efficacy and different types of intelligences. In order to answer this question, the data were analyzed using  the Pearson coefficient of correlation which is a parametric formula. Tables 4 and 5 show the results of this  analysis.  According to the results of the analysis reported in Tables 4 and 5, there was a significant and positive  correlation between Listening self-efficacy and natural intelligence,  ρ = .09, n = 100, p < .05., between  Listening self-efficacy and musical intelligence, ρ = .12, n = 100, p < .01., between Listening self-efficacy and  intrapersonal intelligence,  ρ = .28, n = 100, p < .01,  between Listening self-efficacy and interpersonal  intelligence, ρ = .34, n = 100, p < .01, between Listening self-efficacy and logical intelligence ρ = .03, n = 100,  p < .05., and between listening self-efficacy and kinesthetic intelligence as well as verbal and visual intelligence.  Based on the abovementioned findings, all of the intelligence types, except kinesthetic intelligence as well as  verbal and visual intelligence were significantly related to listening self-efficacy.  In other words, out of 8  intelligence types, five of them were significantly associated with listening self-efficacy.    4.4 Answering the Third Research Question    As reported earlier, the correlations between self-efficacy scores and 5 out of 8 multiple intelligence types turned  out to be significant. These 5 intelligence types were: natural, musical, intrapersonal, interpersonal and logical  intelligences. As a result, the researcher opted for the multiple regression analysis to probe the third research  question. In order to answer this question, a standard multiple regression analysis was run. Table 6 shows the  variables of the regression model. Natural, musical, intrapersonal, interpersonal and logical intelligences were  the predictor variables and listening self-efficacy score was the predicted variable.  Table 6. Variables of the regression model    Variables Entered/Removed  Model  Variables Entered  Variables Removed  Method 1  Natural, musical, intrapersonal, interpersonal and logical intelligences  .  Enter  a. All requested variables entered.  b. Dependent Variable: Listening self-efficacy.    Table 7 presents the regression model summary including R and R2.    Table 7. Model Summary– R and R Square Table 8. Regression output: ANOVA  Model  Sum of Squares  Df  Mean Square  F  Sig.  1  Regression  23051.102  7  4610.220  19.552  .000a   Residual  138880.283  92  235.790      Total  161931.385  99        a. Predictors: (Constant), Natural, musical, intrapersonal, interpersonal and logical intelligences b. Dependent  Variable: Listening self-efficacy.    Table 8 demonstrates the Standardized Beta Coefficients which signify the degree to which each predictor  variable contributes to the prediction of the predicted  variable. The inspection of the Sig. values shows that  among the 5 predictor variables, only interpersonal and intrapersonal intelligences can make statistically  significant unique contributions to the equation as their Sig. values were less than .05.      Table 9. Regression output: Coefficients  Model  Unstandardized Coefficients Standardized Coefficients T  Significance  Part Correlation B  SE  β  1  (Constant)  53.267  6.670    7.986 .000    Natural  .174  .120  .057  1.457 .146  .056  Musical  .132  .111  .047  1.186 .236  .045  Intrapersonal  .287  .127  .107  2.249 .025  .086  Interpersonal  .715  .117  .285  6.107 .000  .233  Logical  -.035  .079  -.018  -.436 .663  -.017    The comparison of β values in Table 9 shows that interpersonal intelligence type has the largest β coefficient (β =  0.285, t = 6.107, p = 0.000). This means that interpersonal intelligence makes the strongest statistically  significant unique contribution to explaining listening  self-efficacy scores. Therefore, it can be concluded that  interpersonal intelligence could more strongly predict the  listening self-efficacy scores of the participants.  Moreover, intrapersonal intelligence was ranked as the second predictor of listening self-efficacy. Finally, the  inspection of Part correlation (semi partial correlation coefficient) shows that interpersonal intelligence uniquely  explains 5.4 percent of the variance in Listening self-efficacy scores. (.233×.233=.054).    5. Discussion and Conclusion  To begin with, the first research question attempted to systematically explore the way EFL learners’ multiple  intelligences and listening self-efficacy scores are associated. It was found that there is a significant relationship  between total multiple intelligence scores and the listening self-efficacy of  the learners. As for the findings for  the second research question, it was found that all of the intelligence types, except kinesthetic intelligence, verbal  and visual intelligence, were significantly related to listening self-efficacy. In other words, 5 out of 8 intelligence  types were significantly associated with listening self-efficacy. It was also shown that the model can significantly  predict EFL learners’ Listening self-efficacy scores.  Ample research studies have explored the state of multiple intelligences in the learning process and consequently  its role in English language learning has been emphasized (Tirri & Komulainen, 2002; Shore, 2004; Kallenbach,  1999; Ahmadian & Hosseini, 2012; Marefat, 2007; Sadeghi & Farzizadeh, 2012; Hajhashemi & Eng, 2012;  Panahi, 2011; Zarei & Mohseni, 2012; Lazear, 1991; Tahriri & Divsar, 2011). Based on the studies conducted on  these two variables, the conclusion is that multiple intelligences play a major role in language learning.    As it was mentioned above, it was revealed that there was a significant and positive correlation between total  multiple Intelligences and listening self-efficacy scores, This significant relationship seems to confirm the  findings of the MIT studies which have fostered a new approach in education and have been the basis of the www.ccsenet.org/elt  English Language Teaching  Vol. 9, No. 6; 2016  208    most important theory in the area  of personal development (Tirri & Komulainen, 2002). Nowadays, teachers  apply the MI-based educational program since it addresses the range of different ways people learn (Shore, 2004;  Kallenbach, 1999). The relationship between multiple intelligences and the learning of second language skills is  a burgeoning area of research. However, it cannot be ignored that the magnitude of the relationship between the  two variables raises doubts about the meaningfulness of the relationship (Tirri & Komulainen, 2002; Shore, 2004;  Kallenbach, 1999). Perhaps other studies would reduce this uncertainty through replicating this study in similar  and different contexts.  The results related to the first research question are found to be consistent with Shore’s (2001) study in which  she examined the use of multiple intelligences in George Washington University second language classrooms.  The findings indicated that utilizing multiple intelligence-based lessons in the foreign language classrooms led to  higher self-efficacy and therefore greater achievement in second language learning. Another study whose results  are in line with the current study is the one conducted by IKiz and Çakar (2010) in which the relationship  between multiple intelligences and the academic achievement levels was investigated. Academic achievement  scores turned out to be related to students' multiple intelligences.    The second research question was intended to systematically investigate the relationship between EFL learners’  achievement scores and different intelligence types. As stated earlier (see instruments), the questionnaire of  multiple intelligences comprises eight components, namely; interpersonal, intrapersonal, logical, verbal,  kinesthetic, visual, musical and natural intelligences. Hoping to provide a more vivid understanding of the  relationship between listening self-efficacy scores and multiple intelligence types, this research question  examined the relationship between Listening self-efficacy scores, on the one hand, and different components of  multiple intelligences, on the other hand.    Based on the results of the parametric Pearson coefficient of correlation, it was concluded that all of the  intelligence types, except kinesthetic, verbal and visual intelligence, were significantly related to self-efficacy  scores. In other words, out of 8 intelligence types, 5 of them were significantly associated with Listening  self-efficacy scores. The results gained here seem to be inconsistent with Razmjoo’s (2008) study in which he  examined the strength of the relationship between language proficiency in English and different types of  intelligences. The results indicated no significant relationship between language proficiency and the combination  of intelligences in general and the types of intelligences  in particular. Therefore, more studies seem to be  required to further explore the nature of this relationship. Another finding of this study was that interpersonal  intelligence makes the strongest unique contribution to explaining Listening self-efficacy scores. Hence, it can  be concluded that interpersonal intelligence could predict more strongly the listening self-efficacy scores of the  participants. Moreover, intrapersonal intelligence was ranked as the second predictor of achievement scores.    There is a unanimous consensus among language educators that learners play a crucial role in the process of  learning (Mitchell & Myles, 2004; Richards & Rodgers, 2001). In order to play this role appropriately, they  should be cognizant of the fact that knowing one’s intelligences and employing them appropriately can  substantially promote language learning (Modiano, 2001). Therefore, learners should attempt to get to know the  intelligences they possess (Giancarlo & Facione, 2001). In addition, they should attempt to promote their ability  to use multiple intelligences appropriately through other factors which can positively affect their multiple  intelligences.   References  Ahmadian, M., & Hosseini, S. (2012). A study of the relationship between Iranian EFL learners’ Multiple  Intelligence and their performance on writing. Mediterranean Journal of Social Sciences, 3(1), 111-126.  Akbari R, Hosseini K, (2008). Multiple intelligences and  language learning strategies: Investigating possible  relations. System, 36(2), 141-155. http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.system.2007.09.008  Andon, N., & Eckerth, J. (2009). Chacun à son gout? 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