Trinity College History of Ideas 代写

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August Main Intake 2015/16 Second Essay Q1 Page 1 of 17 History of Ideas August Main Intake 2015/2016 Second Essay 1500 words, 30% Due date: Thursday 18 February 2016 If the essay is more than10% above the word count this will be taken into account when determiningthe grade of the essay. The bibliography and references in brackets are notincluded in the wordcount. The essay must be based on the recommended reading (both primary source extracts and secondary sources). *Any materials used which are not on the recommended reading list must be uploaded in electronic form, with parts used highlighted. Please do notuse non- English language sources. Note: Wherethere is doubt about the authorship of the essay, the student will be required to sit the final exam and will not have the option to select Ordinary Level HOI. Question One: Compare Lotario dei Segni's and Pico della Mirandola’s views of human nature. Which authordoyou think has the better understanding of the nature of human beings? (Use both primary and secondary sources to support your answer.) Reading: (Wherepage numbers are indicated, these are the most important sections, but you may also find useful material on other pages, depending on your approach and needs. Where page numbersare not indicated, there are sections throughout the book which may be useful, depending on your approach and needs.) Primary Sources Theseprimary source extracts are provided onthe following pages: Lotario dei Segni 2015, The Misery ofthe Human Condition, Trinity College Foundation Studies,Melbourne. Pico della Mirandola 2015, On The Dignity of Man, TrinityCollege Foundation Studies, Melbourne. SecondarySources Noteon page numbers: Where these are indicated, these are the most important sections, butyoumay also find useful material on other pages, depending on your approach and needs. Where page numbers are not indicated, there are sections throughout the book which may be useful, depending on your approach and needs. Noteon eBooks: where available, eBooks at the Leeper library can be obtained by searching its catalogue. An eBook willremain on your computer or iPad for the August Main Intake 2015/16 Second Essay Q1 Page 2 of 17 duration of the loan period. To print material from an eBook open the eBook via the catalogue. This will take you into a screen entitled ‘EBL’. There is a print icon at the top of the screen. If you click on this, you willbe prompted to create a loan. Once this is done, a print screenappears. You will now be able to print pages from the book. Standard copyright restrictions apply. The following secondary sources have been placed on reserve at both the Baillieu and Leeper libraries: Brotton, J 2006, The Renaissance: A very short introduction, OxfordUniversity Press, New York. Recommendedpages: 39-41, 112-113. Brown, A 1999, The Renaissance, Longman Press, London. Recommendedpages: 62-64. Burke, P1997,TheRenaissance,Macmillian Press, London. Recommendedpages: Recommendedpages: 12-22. Cantor, N (ed) 1999, The Pimlico encyclopedia of the Middle Ages, Pimlico, London. Hale, J 2000, Renaissance Europe 1480-1520, Blackwell, Oxford. Recommendedpages: 226-231. Nauert, C 1995, Humanism and the culture of the Renaissance. Cambridge University Press, Cambridge. Recommendedpages: 55-68; or 2 nd edition, 63-76. Perry, M et al.2013,Western civilization: ideas, politics & society, Houghton Mifflin, Boston. Recommendedpages: 257-259, 299-301. Tarnas, R 1996, The passion of the western mind: understanding the ideasthat have shaped our world view. Pimlico,London. Recommendedpages: 143-148 166-168, 214-215. Note: although most ofthis reading is about the early Christian thinker Augustine (AD 354-430) , his writings formed part of the basis of later Christian viewpoints. The following secondary source has been placed onreserve only at the Baillieu library: Le Goff, J 1990, The medieval world, Collins and Brown, London. Recommendedpages: 3-9, 28-29. PDF versions of partsof the following books areavailable at theLeeperlibrary and can be obtained by searchingitscatalogue, which is accessible via the Trinity portal on the internet in any location. Please do not printHOI materials in the library:use the Trinity computer labs for printing. August Main Intake 2015/16 Second Essay Q1 Page 3 of 17 Cantor, N (ed) 1999, The Pimlico encyclopedia of the Middle Ages, Pimlico, London. Page: 240. Le Goff, J 1990, The medieval world, Collins and Brown, London. Pages: 3-9, 28-29. McBrien, R 1997, Lives of the popes:the pontiffs from St. Peter to John Paul II. Harper, San Francisco. Pages: 209-211. Miller,P 1998, ‘Introduction’, in Pico della Mirandola, On the dignity of man. Hackett, Indianapolis. Pages: vii-xvii. Nauert, C 1995, Humanism and the Cultureof theRenaissance.Cambridge University Press, Cambridge. Pages: 55-68. Ralph, P, Lerner, R, Meacham, S, Wood, A, Hull, R, and Burns, E 1997, World civilizations, Norton, New York. Pages: 465-468. August Main Intake 2015/16 Second Essay Q1 Page 4 of 17 History of Ideas Essay:COLLUSION and PLAGIARISM Any academic essay MUST be your own independent workfrom start to end. Using other people’s ideas, words, or work is cheatingand is an academic crime. Trinity College (and the University of Melbourne) regards cheating very seriously, and any collusion or plagiarism will be severely penalised. COLLUSION: You must work independently onyour essays. You must notworkout yourideas or essay plans with friends.You must write your essay yourself, without substantial help from others. You must notuse anyone else’s essay plan, materials, draft, computer disk, or work of any kind, to help you write your essay. This is called“collusion”. You must not help anybody cheat by providing her/him with an essay plan, materials, draft, computer disk, or work of any kind, to help her/him write her/hisessay. This is also collusion. Be particularly careful not to allow anyone access to your computer, and do not leave essay drafts on the hard disk of any computer used by others, or in any publicplace. It is your responsibility to take all reasonable steps to ensure that nobody can access or copy your work.If someonecopies your essay you will also be penalised. If two essays are found to be substantially the same in content, organisationand words, the essays of BOTH students will be disregarded and BOTH will be required to sit a special exam. PLAGIARISM: Using someone else’s words or ideaswithout proper acknowledgement is considered an academic crime, and is called “plagiarism”. Ifyou use the ideas or information from a book or internet site you should express them in your own words and providea reference.You must not simply rearrange a sentence or substitute synonyms. Using sentencesin your essay which are too close to those in the secondary source is considered plagiarism. If you use words or sentences from a book or internet site, you must always use both quotation marks and a reference. Using someone else’s words without quotation marks is considered plagiarism. When you use any ideas or information from a book or internet site,whetheryou use your own words or quote, you must give areference. Failure to use a reference is plagiarism. Using words without quotation marks or not referencing is considered plagiarism (stealing) and will be penalised. An essaywith substantial plagiarism will automatically fail. August Main Intake 2015/16 Second Essay Q1 Page 5 of 17 Introduction and notes to Lotario dei Segni The Misery of theHuman Condition by John Buttrose (2015) 1 Lotario dei Segni (c. 1160 - 1216) 2 was born into an aristocratic family with close connections to thepapal court. He was well educated, and a man of outstanding ability. He had already reached the position of cardinal-deacon, a very high rank in the church, by the age of 30. The Misery of the Human Conditionwas written in 1195, and soon it became popular and influential. It reflectsa set of Christian attitudes which had developed on the basis of the early Christian writer St Augustine, and it was possibly written particularly to criticise corruptpriests.Lotario became pope in 1198, taking the name of Pope Innocent III. He becameone of the most important popes of the Middle Ages, initiating crusading wars against heretics in Europe and Muslims in the Middle East, discriminatory policies against Jews, and asserting the political powerof the pope overEuropean rulers. Extracts from Lotario dei Segni The Miseryof the Human Condition (1195) 3 Adapted for TCFS use from dei Segni, L 1978, De miseria condicionis humane, ed. R Lewis, University of Georgia Press, Athens. The section numbers used in this extract follow the standard system of numbering used in Lotario dei Segni The Misery of the Human Condition. Preface Lotario, unworthy cardinal-deacon, prays for Grace 4 in the present and glory in the future. 5 I:1 Of the Misery of Man Why did I come outof my mother’s womb to see labour and sorrow and that my days should be spent inconfusion? … My mother, why did you bear me, the son of bitterness and sorrow?Why did I not die in the womb? Having come out of the belly, why didI not perish at once? Why received upon the knees, suckled at the breasts, when Iwas born for burning and for fuel for the fire? 6 Who therefore will give my 1 Please read the introduction and footnotes given in this extract carefully, as they are provided to assist your understanding. However, it is not recommended that you directly cite them as a secondarysource in your essay. If forany reason you need to do so, follow the format provided in the EAP referencing guide. 2 Sometimes you will find the name spelt as “Lothario”; “dei Segni” means “of Segni”, the nearest town to his birthplace, and is not his personal name. 3 Refer to this extract in your essay as (Lotario The Misery of the Human Condition Ex I:1). Change the section number according to the one you are using, or use the title Preface, as appropriate. List in the bibliography as: Lotario dei Segni 2015, The misery of the human condition extract, Trinity College FoundationStudies, Melbourne. 4 According to Christian theology, Grace is the undeserved forgiveness by God of human sin, allowing humans – who can never be without sin – to enter Heaven. 5 Lotario is talking about attaining the ‘glory’ oflife in Heaven, not glory in this earthly life. 6 According to the Christian doctrine of ‘original sin’, human beings are born sinful, due to the sin of Adam and Eve (the first humans, according to the Bible story), who disobeyed God by eating the fruit in the Garden of Eden which God had forbidden them to eat. “The fire” refers tothe Medieval Christian belief that without the saving Grave of God and the help of the Church, sinful humans would be burned forever in Hell, a place of eternal punishment. August Main Intake 2015/16 Second Essay Q1 Page 6 of 17 eyes a fountain of tears so that I may weep at the miserable beginnings of the human condition, theculpable progress of human behaviour, the damnable ending of human dissoluteness. With tears Imight consider what man is made of, what man does, what man will be. Man is indeed formed from earth, conceived in sin, born to pain. He does depraved things which are unlawful, shameful things that are indecent, vain things thatare unprofitable. He becomes fuel for the fire, food for the worms, a mass of putridness. … Man is formedof dust,of clay,of ashes: what is more vile, from the filthiest sperm.He is conceived in the heat of desire, the fervour of the flesh, in the stench of lust: what is worse in the blemish of sin. He is born to labour, fear, sorrow: what is more miserable, to death…He will become fuel for the inextinguishable fire thatalways flames and burns: food for the immortal worm that always eats and consumes; a mass ofhorrible putridness that always stinks and isfilthy. I:2 Of the Vilenessof Matter The LordGod formed man of the slime of the earth, which is inferior to other elements. He made the planets and the stars from fire, made the breezes and the winds from air,made the fish and the birds from water, made men and beasts from earth. 7 If man therefore considers the creatures of the water, he will discover that he is vile; if he considers the things of the air,he willknow that he is more vile; if he considers the things of fire, he will consider heis most vile. He will neither be able to make himself equal to the starsnor dare to prefer himself to earthly things, because he will discover he is equal to the beasts. I:3 Of the Flaw ofConception …Who does not know that copulation,even within marriage, is never performed without the heat of desire, without the fervour of the flesh, without the stench of lust? Because of this the conceived seeds are made filthy, defiled, and spoiled, from which seeds the soul ultimately imparted contracts the blemish of sin, the stain of guilt, the filth ofiniquity, just as an infused liquid is spoiled by a tainted vessel. For the soul has three natural powersor three natural forces: the rational to distinguish between goodand evil, the irascible to reject evil, the appetitive to desire good. These powers are originally corrupted by three opposite vices: the rational force by ignorance, so thatit cannot distinguish between good and evil; the irascible force by anger, so that it rejects good; the appetitive force by lust, so that it desires evil. … These three vices are contracted from the corrupt flesh through three fleshly enticements. For in fleshly intercourse the clarity of reason is lulled to sleep, so that ignorance is begotten; the heat ofdesire is stimulated, so that anger is propagated; the desire for pleasure is satiated so that lust is produced. This is the tyrant of the flesh, the law of the bodily parts, the wood which lights afire of sin, the weakness of nature, the nourishment of death, without which no one is born, without which no one dies. I:9 Of the Discomforts of Old Age 7 Lotario refers to the beliefthat all matter is made from thefour elements of Air, Fire, Water and Earth. Earth was the lowest of all the elements. The belief originated with the Greek philosopher Empedocles, and was used by Plato and Aristotle and by medieval thinkers, based on their writings. August Main Intake 2015/16 Second Essay Q1 Page 7 of 17 In the beginning of the human condition men are reported to have lived nine hundred years or more 8 . But as the life of man gradually decreased, God saidto Noah, “My spirit shall not remainin manforever because he is flesh, and his days shall be one hundred and twenty years.”Rarely since then are men reported to have lived longer, but because human lifewas shortened more and more, it was said by the psalmist, “Thedays of ouryears in themselves are threescore and ten years – if, however, in the strong,fourscore years: most of them are labour and sorrow.” 9 … Few now reach forty years, very few sixty. If, however, one does reach old age, his heart weakens straightaway and his head shakes, his spiritfails and his breath stinks, his face wrinkles and his back bends, his eyes dim and his joints falter, his nose runs and his hair falls out, his touch trembles and hiscompetence fails, his teeth rot and his ears become dirty.An oldman is provoked easilyand restrained with difficulty, believes quicklyand disbelieves slowly, is stingy and greedy, dejected and complaining, quick to speak andslow to listen, but is not slow to anger; he praises the things old and spurns modern things, disparages the present and commends the past, sighs and is anxious, is tormented and enfeebled. … But an old man should not be angry with the youngperson northe young person be insolentto theold person, for we are what he was, andsomeday will be whathe is. I:19 Of the Prison of the Soul Of course he who does not wish to escape from the body does not wish to escape from prison,for the prison of the soul is thebody. 10 Of this the psalmist says, “Bring my soul out of prison that I may praise thyname.” Nowhere is there quiet and tranquillity, nowhere peace and security; everywhere is fear and trembling, everywhere labour and sorrow. I:22 Of the Proximity of Death The last day is always the first, and the first day is never thought to be the last, althoughit is nevertheless appropriate to live as if it might always be necessary to die. It is written, “Remember that death is not slow.” Time passes, and death approaches.…For the futureis always being born, the present is always dying, whatever is past is utterly dead. We are therefore always dying while we are alive, we only stop dying at such a timeas westop living.It is better to die for life than to live for death, becausemortal life is nothing but a living death. Life flees quietly and cannot be detained; but death attacks vehemently and is unable to be checked. The miracleis this; that life decreases by as much as it increases, because it moves near to death by asmuch as it moves forward. I:24 Of Compassion 8 This refers to stories in the Bible of people who lived many hundreds of years. 9 Lotario refers to the Bible story of Noah andthe Flood and to the section of the Bible known as the Book of Psalms. The 150 psalms (or poems) were thought to have been written by oneperson whom he calls “the psalmist”. A ‘score’ means 20 years, so “threescore and ten” means 70 years, and “fourscore” means 80 years. 10 Thesoul was seen as the true essence of a person. The idea that the immortal soul was separate from the body was a very old one, as was the idea that the mortal body imprisoned the soul temporarily. August Main Intake 2015/16 Second Essay Q1 Page 8 of 17 Oh withhow much sorrow are we troubled, with how much trembling we are disturbed,when we observethe injury of friends, when we fear the danger of relatives! Sometimes a healthy personis more troubled by fear than a sick person by illness. The former is moredistressed by the feeling of anguish of his own free will than the latter is by the result ofinfirmity against his will. … Whose heart is so hard that he does not sigh, does not shed tears, when he looks upon the sickness or death of a neighbour or friend, that he does not feel pity for the one who suffers and suffer with those who are in pain?…But he who weeps for the corporeal death of his friend and does not weep for the spiritual death of his soul should understand that he is culpably stubbornand stubbornly culpable. 11 I:25 That there are Countless Kinds of Sickness Medical activity through the ages has not been able to investigate as many kinds of sickness, as many species of suffering, as human frailty can tolerate. … it is intolerable because of the severity of the suffering and tolerable because of the necessity ofsuffering. From day today human nature is corrupted more and more, so much so that many things were formerly healthy experiences that are today deadly things because of the failings ofhuman nature itself. Each world has already grown old … and the longerold age is extended, the more severely the nature of each is disturbed. 12 I:26 Of Sudden Misfortunes Suddenly, when itis not suspected, misfortune strikes, calamity rushes in, disease invades, death, which no one escapes, snatches away. Therefore, boast not for tomorrow; for you do not know what the dayto come may bring forth. Man does not know his own end, but as fish are taken with the hook, and as birds are caught with the snare, so men are taken in the evil time when it shall suddenly come upon them. I:27 Of Various Kinds of Torments What may I say about themiserable people who are destroyed by countless kinds of torments? Theyare beaten with clubs and slain with swords, burned with flames and overwhelmed with stones, torn to pieces with claws and suspended with yokes, tortured with nails and whipped withscorpions, restrained with chains and bruised by fetters,subdued by prisons and made thin by fasting, thrown down and submerged, flayedand torn apart, cut up and pierced through. … Cruel judgement, monstrous punishment, sadspectacle!They are given as food to the birds in the sky, beasts of the earthand fish of thesea. Alas, alas, alas, miserable mothers, who have borne such unhappy children. II:1 Men are accustomed to strive for three things in particular: riches, pleasures and honours. From riches come perverse things, from pleasures shameful things, from 11 “Corporeal” death refers tothe death of the physical body. Lotario says we should be more concerned with the fateof the human soul, not the body. 12 Thesickness of individual people is used here as a metaphor for the sickness and corruption of the world itself. August Main Intake 2015/16 Second Essay Q1 Page 9 of 17 honours vain things. Hence John the Apostle says: “love not the world, nor the things which are in the world,for whatever is in the world is the concupiscence 13 of the flesh and the concupiscence of the eyes and the pride of life.” 14 The concupiscence of the flesh pertains to pleasure, the concupiscence of the eyes to riches, and pride of life to honours. Riches engender covetousness and avarice, pleasures bring forward gluttony and lechery, honours nourish pride 15 andboasting. II:21 Of lust The foul motherproduces a fouler daughter. They are all adulterers, like an oven heated by the baker. The extreme foulness of desire, which not only weakens, but debilitates the body; not only defiles the soul, butpollutes the person. A man who commits fornication, sins against his own body. Desire and wantonness always precede it, stench and filth always attend, sorrow and repentance always follow. For the lips ofa harlot arelikehoneycomb dropping, and her throat is smoother than oil; but her endis asbitter as wormwoodand sharp as a two edged sword. II:41 That no one may boastabout himself There isnoone who can boast about the purity of his heart, because in many things we all offend, and if wesay we have no sin, we deceive ourselves and the truth is not in us. … God repented that he had made man on earth, seeing the wickedness of men was great on the earth and that all the thought of man’s heart was bent on evil at every opportunity, and therefore, being touched inwardly with sorrow of heart, destroyed man whom he had created. 16 Moreover wickedness has flourished, and the charity of many has grown cold. … Nearly the whole life of mortals is filled with mortal sins, 17 so that hardly anyone can be found who does not stray towards evil, who does not return to his vomit, who does notrot in his own dung, whereas they boast when they have done evil and rejoice in most wicked things. This world … abounds with heretics, schismatics 18 , traitors, tyrants, simoniacs 19 , hypocrites, the ambitious, the covetous, robbers, plunderers, theviolent, extortioners, usurers, forgers, the ungodly, the sacrilegious,betrayers, liars, flatterers, deceivers, babblers, the crafty, gluttons, drunkards,adulterers, the incestuous, the effeminate, the impure, the lazy, the negligent, the vain, the wasteful, the impetuous, the angry, the impatient, the inconstant, sorcerers, soothsayers, perjurers, those who blind, the presumptuous, the arrogant, the unbelieving, the desperate, finally those caught in all the vices combined. 13 Concupiscencemeans sensualappetite: i.e., lust. 14 John was an ‘apostle’: i.e., a companion of Jesus. Lotariois referring toa section of the New Testament of the Bible. 15 Pride is one of the seven‘deadly’ sins: i.e., those which lead humans to commit other sins. From the early Christian period, these seven sins were defined as Lust, Greed, Gluttony, Envy, Anger, Pride and Sloth (Laziness). 16 Lotario is again referring to the Bible story of Noah. According to this story, God destroyed every living thing on the earth, except Noah, his family andthe animals carried in Noah’s Ark, because He could see only wickedness and sin among the people. 17 A mortal is a person. To be mortal means that one dies. A mortal sin is a deliberate and serious breaking of God’s law. The soul of a person guilty of a mortal sin could no longer be received in Heaven. 18 A schismatic is one who causes divisions within the Church over matters of doctrine and belief. 19 A simoniac is one who is guilty of buying or selling positions in the Church. August Main Intake 2015/16 Second Essay Q1 Page 10 of 17 But as smoke vanishes they shall vanish, as the wax melts before the fire, so shall the wicked perish. III:1Of the rottenness of corpses How many and how great the thingsmortalsplan on account of the uncertainty of worldly foreknowledge, but at the moment of sudden death the things they had planned suddenly disappear. … Therefore the spirit does not go forth willing, but unwilling, becauseit gives up with sorrow what it possessed with love, and whether it wishes or not, a limit hasbeen setfor it that cannot be gone beyond, at which earth shall return to earth. … Certainly it isnatural that something made of matter should be dissolved into matter. … How foul is the father, how vile the mother, how abominable the sister! For man is conceived of blood; made rotten by the fire of lust; in theend worms stand by his body like mourners. Alive, he brings forth lice and tapeworms; dead hewill beget worms and flies. Alive he produces dung and vomit; dead he produces rottennessand stench. Alive, he fattens one man; dead, he will fatten manyworms. What, then, is more foul smelling than a human corpse? What more horrible than a dead man? … What good therefore are riches? What good sumptuous food? What good delicacies? They will not free from death, will not defend from the worm, will not take away the stench. III:16That nothing shall benefitthe damned The riches willnot benefit, nor honours protect, nor friends support. For it is written: “Their silver and gold shall not be able to deliver them on the day of the wrath of the Lord.” 20 The kings of the earth shall weep and wail when they see the smoke of the burning, for fear of its torments. “The soul that sins, the same shall die.” Severe judgement, inwhich not onlyof deeds, but of every idle word that men have spoken, shall render an account, in which the debt will be extracted with interest up to the last farthing. 21 Who therefore will be able to flee from the wrath to come? Therefore the Son of Man 22 shall send his angels, and they shall gather out of his kingdom all scandals and them that work iniquity; theyshall bind them in bundles for burning, and shall cast them intothe furnace of glowing fire. 23 There shall be weeping and moaning,wailingand shrieking, grief andtorment, gnashing and shouting, fear and trembling, labour and pain, fireand stench, darkness and anxiety, anguish and harshness, calamity and want, distress and sorrow, oblivion and confusion, tortures and pains, bitterness and terrors, hunger and thirst, cold and heat, brimstone and fire burning foreverand ever. Here ends thebookof the Misery of the Human Condition, by Lotario, Cardinal- Deacon of Saint Sergius and Bachius, who was afterwards called Pope Innocent the Third. 20 Lotario is referring to Judgement Day. Accordingto Judaeo-Christian theology, this is the day at the end of the world when souls are judged by God as to whether they are worthy ofa place in Heaven. 21 A farthing is a very small coin of little value. 22 Thephrase “Sonof man” refers to Jesus. 23 Lotario is referring to Hell,a place of eternal torment for the soul who sins. August Main Intake 2015/16 Second Essay Q1 Page 11 of 17 Introduction and notes to Pico dellaMirandola On The Dignityof Man by Tamar Lewit (2015) 24 Giovanni Pico della Mirandola 25 (1463-1494) wasa wealthy Italian nobleman educated atthe universities of Bologna, Ferrara and Padua. He also studied the languages of Greek, Hebrew and Arabic, and both Arabic philosophy and Jewish mystical traditions. In 1484, he visited the Platonic Academy led by Marsilio Ficino in Florence, and became much influenced by Platonic and Neo-Platonicideas. His styleof thinking is often called ‘syncretism’, because he believed that truth could be found in all types of philosophy and theology, and tried to combine ancient pagan and philosophical ideas with Persian, Islamic, Jewish, and Christian Scholastic ideas. He presented this viewpoint in 900 ‘Theses’ (arguments), towhich On The Dignity of Man was the introduction. He intended topresent these arguments for public ‘disputation’ in Rome. Public debates (‘disputes’ or ‘disputations’) in Latin were an important partof university and scholarly activity at the time. Professors debated the conclusionsreached in their lectures with their students, rather like a lecture and tutorial format today. In public disputations, the speaker was expected to debate thetopic with those who attended, and skill in debating was much admired. However, Pico’s proposed dispute was forbidden and his 900 theses were condemned as partiallyheretical by Pope Innocent VIII. He was arrested in France in1488, but allowed to return to Italy and to live near Florence under thesponsorship of Lorenzo de’ Medici, where he continued to write until his death at the age of 31. On The Dignity of Man was not published until after his death. Extracts from Pico della Mirandola On The Dignity of Man (1486) 26 Adapted and with section numbers for TCFS use from Pico della Mirandola 1998, On the dignity of man, trans. CG Wallis, Hackett, Indianapolis. 1.I have read in the records of the Arabians that Abdul the Saracen 27 , on being asked what in the whole world he viewed as most greatly worthy of wonder, answered that he viewed nothing as more wonderful than man. And Mercury's words“man is a great wonder,Asclepius!” agrees with that opinion. 28 On thinking over the reason for these sayings,I was not satisfiedbythe many assertions made by many men about why 24 Please read the introduction and footnotes given in this extract carefully, as they are provided to assist yourunderstanding. However, it is not recommendedthat you directly cite them as a secondary source in your essay. If for any reason you need to do so, follow the format provided in the EAP referencingguide. 25 He is usually referred toby his family name, ‘Pico’; ‘della Mirandola’, meaning ‘of Mirandola’,is the name of his home town, not his personal name. 26 Refer to this extract in your essay as (Pico OnThe Dignity of Man Ex 1). Change the section number according to the one you are using. List inthe bibliography as: Pico della Mirandola 2015, On the dignity of man extract,Trinity College Foundation Studies, Melbourne. 27 Theterm ‘Saracen’ was used to mean any Moslem, in this case an Islamic scholar 28 Pico refers to the ancient writings known as “Hermetica”. These are pagan writings on such topics as the nature of gods and the universe, magic, religious purificationrituals,and prophesies. Modern scholars consider that they were probably written in the Roman period around the 2 nd -3 rd century AD, but in Pico’s time theywere believed to date from the Egyptian era about 3000years earlier,and to contain very ancient secret knowledge. The writings are presented as advicefrom the pagangod Hermes ‘Trismegistus’ (also called Mercury)to his disciples, including a person called Asclepius (a fictional descendant of the Greek god of Medicine called Asclepius). Pico’s teacher Ficino translated the texts for a printed Latin version. August Main Intake 2015/16 Second Essay Q1 Page 12 of 17 human nature is outstanding: [they have said] that man is the messenger between creatures, familiar with the upper creatures and king of the lower creatures 29 ; by the sharpness of his senses, by the power ofreason, and by the light of intelligence, he is the interpreter of nature; the part in between the stillness of eternity and the flow of time 30 …. and, according to David, “a littlelower thanthe angels.” 31 Thesereasons are great butnot themainones, that is, they are not reasons for a lawful claim to the prerogative of being the highest wonder. Why should we not wonder more at the angels themselvesand at the very blessed heavenly choirs? 32 2.Finally, it seemed to me that I understoodwhy man is the animal that is most happy, and is therefore worthy of wonder; and lastly, what the state is that is allotted to man in thesuccession of things, andthatis capable of arousing envy not only in the brutes but also in the stars and even in minds beyond the world. It is wonderful and beyond belief. For this is thereason why man is rightly saidand thoughtto be a great marvel and the animal really worthyof wonder. Now hear what it is, fathers; 33 andkindly and for the sake ofyour humanity, give me your close attention: 3.Now the highest Father, God the master-builder, had, by the laws of his secret wisdom, fabricated this house, this world which we see, a very superb temple of divinity. 34 He had adorned the super-celestial region with minds. He had animated the celestial globes with eternal souls; he had filled the lower world with a diverse throng of animals.… 35 But, with the work finished, the Artisan 36 wanted someone to think about the reason of such a big work,to love its beauty, and to wonder at its greatness. Accordingly,now that all things had beencompleted, as Moses and Timaeus testify, He lastly considered creating man. 37 But there was nothing in the archetypes 38 from which He could mold something new. … Everything was filled up; all things had been laid out in the highest, the lowest, and the middle orders. 39 … Finally, the master-builder decided the being to which nothing of its very own could be given should be, in compositefashion, whatever had belonged individually to each and every thing. Therefore He took up man, a work of indeterminate form; and, placing him at themidpoint of the world,He spoketo him as follows: 4.“I have given to you, Adam 40 ,nofixed place, no form of your very own, no gift 29 Pico refers to the idea that there are two ‘worlds’ or levels of reality, an ‘upper’ or heavenly world (inhabited by God and angels, and beautiful music sung by choirs) and a ‘lower’world of the earth and all the animals, of which man is seen as the ‘king’. 30 I.e., man has both an immortal soul, which is eternal, and also his physical body which lives in time. 31 A quote from the Bible, Psalms 8.5 (according to tradition, written by the Hebrew King David) 32 See footnote 29. 33 Pico addresses his audience as ‘fathers’ as a mark of respect 34 Pico suggests that the world is like a temple to God 35 Pico refers to Neo-Platonicideas developed by pagan philosophers, inspired by Plato, in the 3 rd -5 th centuries AD, but which also influenced earlyChristian writers such as St Augustine. They theorized the existence of a complex universe including an intermediate worldof reason and of eternal souls existing between the physical world and that of a divine pure being or soul. See alsofootnote 29. 36 I.e., God. 37 Pico refers to the two accounts of howthe universe was made given in the Bible story of creation, here attributed to Moses, and in the Greek philosopher Plato’s work Timaeus. Plato also describes the universe as created by a divine ‘Craftsman’ or Artisan. 38 Pico refers to the Platonic idea that there isanideal form or ‘archetype’ for every material thing. 39 See footnote 35. 40 Pico uses the name ‘Adam’ (the Hebrew word for ‘Man’), which is used in the Bible as the name of the first man to be created by God. August Main Intake 2015/16 Second Essay Q1 Page 13 of 17 peculiarlyyours, so that you canfeel as your own, have as your own, possess as your own, the place, the form, the gifts which you yourself desire. Other creatures have a limited nature, confined within the laws written down by me. But I have put you in control of yourown free judgment, and in conformity with this you are confined by nobounds. You will fix limits of nature for yourself. I have placed you at the center of the world, so that from there you can more conveniently look around and see what is in the world.I have made you neither heavenly nor earthly, neither mortal nor immortal. You, like a judge appointedfor being honorable, are the molder and maker of yourself. You may sculpt yourself into whatever shape you prefer. You can grow downward into thelower natures which are brutes. You can grow upward from your soul's reason into the higher natures which are divine.” 5.Oh, great generosity of God the Father! Oh great and wonderful happiness of man! Man has been given him what he chooses and can be what he wills. As soon as animals are born, they bringwith them, from their birth, as Lucilius 41 says,what they are goingto possess. Highest spirits 42 have been,either from the beginning or soon after, that which theyare going to be throughout everlasting eternity. At man's birth, the Father placed in him every sort of seed and sprouts of every kind of life. The seeds that eachman cultivates will grow and bear their fruit in him. 43 If he cultivates vegetable seeds,he willbecome a plant. If he cultivates the seeds of sensation, he will grow into a brute. If he cultivates rational seeds, he will come out a heavenly animal. If intellectual, he will be an angel, and a son of God. And if he is not contented with the lot of any creature but takes himself up into the center of his own unity, then, made one spirit with God 44 andsettled in the solitary darkness of the Father, who is above all things, he will stand ahead of all things. Who does not wonder at this chameleon 45 which we are?Or who feels more wonder at anything elsewhatever? … 6.According tothe Pythagoreans, wicked men are deformed into brutes and, if you believe Empedocles, into plants too. 46 And copying them, Mohammed often said that he who draws back from divine law becomes a brute. And his saying so was reasonable: for it is not the skin which makes the plant, but a dull and non-sentient nature; not the hidewhich makesa beast of burden 47 ,but a brutal andsensual soul; not thespherical body which makes the heavens, but right reason; 48 and not a separatenessfrom the body but a spiritual intelligence which makes an angel. For example, ifyousee a man given over to his appetites and crawling upon the ground, it is a bushnot a man that you see. If you see anyone … delivered over to the senses, it is a brute not a man that you see. If you see a philosopher sorting out all things by right reason,he is a heavenly not an earthly animal. If you see pure contemplator, 41 A Roman writer of the2 nd century BC. 42 See note 35. 43 In this section, Pico uses ametaphor ofa farmer cultivating different seeds to express the idea that a human chooses what kind of life he will live and creature he will be. 44 Pico refers to Neo-Platonicideas of achieving union with the divine pure being or soul, interpreted in Christian terms as a spiritual union with God. 45 A chameleon is a small lizard which can change itsbody colour to match its surroundings. 46 Followers of the 6 th century BC Greek philosopher Pythagoras believed in aform of reincarnation. The5 th centuryBC Greek philosopher Empedocles said thatall living things were made from the same four basic elements, and is reported to have written “...I wasborn a male and female child, a plant, a bird and a dumb fish ofthe sea…” (Empedocles of Akragas, fr. 117,see Freeman, K 1952 Ancilla to the pre-Socratic Philosophers, Oxford,, p. 65). 47 An animal used to carry heavy things, such asa mule or ox. 48 See footnote 35 on Neo-Platonic ideasof a heavenly world of reason. August Main Intake 2015/16 Second Essay Q1 Page 14 of 17 ignorant of the body, banished to the innermost places of the mind, he is not an earthly, not aheavenly animal; he more superbly is a divinity clothed with human flesh. 7.Who is there that does not wonder at man? And it is not unreasonable that in the Mosaic 49 and Christian holy writingsman is sometimes denoted by the name “all flesh” and at other times by that of “every creature”; and man fashions, fabricates, transforms himself into the shape of all flesh, into the character of every creature. 50 Accordingly,where Evantes the Persian tells of the Chaldaean theology, 51 he writes thatman is not any inborn image ofhimself,but manyimages coming in from the outside: hencethatsaying of the Chaldaeans: … “man is an animal of diverse, multiform, anddestructible nature”. 8.But why all this? In orderfor us to understand that, after having been born in this state so that we may be whatwe want to be, then, since we are held in honor, we ought to take particular care that no one may say against us that we do not know that we are made similar to brutes and mindless beasts of burden. 52 But rather, as Asaph the prophet says: “You are all gods, and sons of the most high,” unless by abusing the very indulgent generosity of [God] the Father, we make the free choice, which he gave to us, whichis harmful to ourselves instead of helpful toward salvation. 53 9.Let a certainholy ambition invade the mind, so that we may not be content with mean things but may aspireto thehighest things and strivewith all our strength to attain them:for if we have the will to, we can. Let us spurn earthly things; let us struggle towardthe heavenly. Let us put in last place whatever is of this world; and let us flybeyond the chambersof this world to the chamber nearest the most lofty divinity… , let uscompete with the angels in dignity andglory. When we have willed it, we shall be not at all belowthem. 10.But by what method? or by doing what? … I sayallthese things… against the philosophers of this age, whobelieve and preach that there should be no philosophizing because there is no moneyfor philosophers, no prizes awarded them; as if they did not show by this one word that theyare notphilosophers. Since their whole life is set on money-making or ambition,they do notembrace the knowledge of truth for itself. I shall givemyself this credit and shall not be shy to praise myself in this respect, that I havenever philosophized for any reason other than for the sake of philosophizing, that I have neither hoped nor sought from my studies… any gain or profit other thancultivation of my soul andknowledge of truth, always so greatly desired by me. I have always been so desirous of this truth and so much in love with it that,abandoning all care of public and private affairs, I gave my whole self over to 49 Of Moses: i.e., the Hebrew Bible (or Old Testament). 50 Pico quotes the sections of the Hebrew and Christian Bible (Old and New Testaments): Genesis 6: 12; Numbers 27: 16; Mark 16:15. 51 Thewriter Evantes is not known. Pico perhapsrefers to Greek writings known as the‘Chaldean Oracles’, dating from around the 2 nd century AD, which contained Neo-Platonic and Persian or Mesopotamian (referred to as ‘Chaldean’) ideas. Pico and other Renaissance thinkers believed that they had original copies of these texts (also known from later, 11 th and 15 th century copies) ,but they were probably forgeries. 52 A quote from the Bible, Psalms 48:21. 53 A quote from the Bible, Psalms 81:6. August Main Intake 2015/16 Second Essay Q1 Page 15 of 17 the leisure of contemplating, from which no disparaging of the envious, no curses from the enemies of wisdom, have been able so far or will be able later to frighten me away. Philosophy herself has taught me to weigh things rather by my own conscience than by the judgments of others, and to considernot so much whether I should be badly spoken 'of as whether I myself should say or do anything bad. … 11.There are some who do not approve of this whole class of disputes 54 andthis practice of debating in public about letters 55 , asserting that it makes rather for the display of talent and learning thanfor acquiring knowledge. There are some who do not disapprove of this type of exercise, but who do not approve of it at all in my case, because I at my age, in only my 24th year, have dared, in the most famous city 56 , in the largest assemblyof the mostlearned men 58 …, to propose adisputation on the sublime mysteries ofChristian theology, on the loftiest questions of philosophy, on unknown teachings. Otherswho give me permission to dispute are unwilling to give me leave to dispute about nine hundred questions, saying in slander that the proposal was made as needlessly and ambitiously as it was beyond my powers…. 12.First, to those who slander this practice of disputingpublicly, I am not going to say much, except that this crime, if they judge it a crime, is the joint work not only of all you very excellent doctors 59 - whohave often completed this task with very great praise and glory - but also of Platoand Aristotle and the most upright philosophers of every age, together with me. To them it seemed certain that the exercise of disputing was the best for reaching the knowledge of the truth which theywere seeking. Just as through gymnastics the forces of the bodyare strengthened, so doubtlessin this kindof literary gymnasium, the forces of the soul become much stronger and more vigorous. … 13.But to those who say that I am not capable of this, the reason in my defense is more difficult… I do not deny that I am very studious and desire the good arts, nevertheless I do not take to myself or layclaim tothe name of learned man. I took up such a huge task not because Iwas unconsciousof our weakness, but because I knew that this sort of literary struggle was peculiarin that here it is a gain to lose. Consequently, anyone very weak can and should not only not disparage them, but also seek them voluntarily, since the loser truly receives benefit and not injury from the winner. Through the winner, the loser returns home richer - that is, more learned and readier for future fights 60 . Inspired by thishope, I, weak soldier thoughI am, have not been afraid to challenge the bravest and strongest of all to such a heavy battle. 14.…I have resolved not to completely trust anyone's words, so that Ibase myselfonall teachers of philosophy, examine all writings, recognize every school 61 …. For it was a practice ofthe ancients to study every school of writers, and if possible, to leave no treatises unread;…Further, in each school there is something notable that it does not have in common 54 See Introduction. 55 ‘Letters’ is used in the Renaissance senseof learned study. 56 I.e., Rome, where the proposed debatewasto be held. 58 Pico had invited philosophers andtheologians from many Italian universities to come to his proposed debate. 59 A ‘doctor’ was a person with a higher university degree. 60 I.e., debates. Pico is arguing that those who are not skilled at debate should participate in them in order to improve their skills, and that thus the person who loses a debate learns more and ‘wins’. He refers to the debate as a ‘battle’ and those debating as ‘soldiers’. 61 A ‘school’ is a group of philosophers working in a particular tradition or setof ideas. August Main Intake 2015/16 Second Essay Q1 Page 16 of 17 with theothers … Inspired by this reasoning, I have wished to bring into view the things taughtnot merely accordingto one doctrine (as some would desire), but things taught according to every sort of doctrine, that by this comparison of very many sects and by the discussion ofmanifold philosophy, that radiance of truth which Plato mentions in his Letters might shine moreclearly upon our minds,likethe sun rising from the deep? What good was it if only the philosophy of the Latins would be treated, namely, Thomas, Scotus, Aegidius, Francis, and Henry 62 , without the Greekand Arab philosophers?All wisdom flowed from the barbarians 63 to the Greeks, and from theGreeks to us.…ConsequentlyI was not content to have added, beside the common teachings, much on the ancient theology of Mercury Trismegistus, 64 much on thedoctrines ofthe Chaldaeans 65 and ofPythagoras 66 , and much on the more secret mysteries of the Jews 67 , and I also proposed for disputationvery manythings discovered and thought out by usonnatural and divine matters… 15.I have proposed theorems about magic, too, in which I have signified that magic has two types … The first sort is put togetherbythe work and authorship of demons, and is a thing, as God is true, execrable and monstrous. The other sort is, when well explored, nothing but the absolute consummation of thephilosophy of nature. … Not only the Christian religion, but all laws, every well ordered state, condemns and curses the first. All wise men, all nations studious of things heavenly and divine, approve and embrace the second. … I find three among the moderns who havecaught the scent of it, Alchindus the Arab, Roger Bacon, and William of Paris 68 . … asthe first type of magic makes man subject to and delivered over to the powers of wickedness, so the second type makes him their prince and lord. … And especiallybecause the first type of magic delivers man over to the enemies of God, calls him away from God, this secondtype of magic arouses that admiration at the works of God which prepares [the mind] so that charity, faith, and hope most surely follow. For nothing impels [a person]more toward religion and the worship of God than assiduous contemplation of the wonders of God. When weshall have well explored these wonders by means of this natural magic we are speaking of, we shall be inspired more ardently to the worship and love of the 62 The‘Latins’ here are the philosophers of the Medieval Christian scholastic tradition, writingin Latin: Thomas Aquinas (1225-1274); John Duns Scotus (1266?-1308);Aegidius, or Giles of Rome (1247?-1316); Francis of Mayrone (c. 1280–1327);and Henry of Ghent (c. 1217 – 1293). 63 TheAncient Greeks referred to non-Greek peoples such as thePersians as ‘barbarians’. Pico means ancient peoples who were not Greeks. 64 See footnote 28. 65 See footnote 51. 66 TheGreek philosopher (570–c. 495 BC), whose philosophy also included spiritual ideas about the nature of the universe and reincarnation – see also footnote 46. 67 Pico is referring to the Cabala (alsospelled Kabbalah or Kabala), Jewish mystical teachings which developed during the Middle Ages, but whichwere claimed to have been secretly given to Moses by God at the same time as the laws of the Hebrew Bible (which make up the first5 books of the Christian Bible).Theteachings, mostly in the form of comments on sections in the Bible, contain descriptions of religious visions, of the nature of the universe, interpretations of a hidden meaningin the Bible based on the numerological values of Hebrew letters, and some magical and astrological texts. 68 Alchindus or Al-Kindi (c. 801–873), Arab philosopher and follower of Aristotle, also influenced by Neo-Platonism; Roger Bacon (c. 1214-1292), was an English monk influenced by Arab philosophy, who explored alchemy and used experiments to discover more about the physicalworld; William of Auvergne (c. 1180-1249) was a bishop of Paris who tried to bring together the teachings of Aristotle and Christianity. Pico expressesthe belief that through an understanding of the hidden inner truth within nature, humanscan gain magical powers of control over nature. This belief was the basis of the practice of Alchemy, based on the ‘Hermetic’ writings and Platonic ideas, developed by Arab philosophers and adopted by Roger Bacon, in which experimentation with substances – later developed into Chemistry – was carried out in an attempt to find the Philosopher’s Stone, which it wasbelieved could transform base metal into gold; and the Elixir of Life, which it was believed could cure all disease and prolong life. August Main Intake 2015/16 Second Essay Q1 Page 17 of 17 maker 69 … 16.I comenow tothose things that I have dug up from the ancient mysteries of the Hebrews 70 and have brought forward in order to confirm the holy and Catholic faith… Not only do celebrated doctors of the Hebrews, but also among us Esdras, Hilary, and Origen 71 write that Moses on the mountain received from God not only the law, which, as written down infive books, he left toposterity,but also a more secret and true interpretation of the law 72 . But Godcommanded him to publish the law to the people,yet notto passonin writing the interpretation of the law, or to make it generally known … Consequently it was not human prudence but divine command to keep these things secret from the people, and to communicate them to the perfect, among whom alone Paul says that he spoke wisdom. 73 … 17.These are the books of the knowledge of Cabala 74 …. Inthis age these books are cherished among the Hebrews with such religious awe that no one is allowed to touch them unlesshe is forty years old. When I had procured myself these books at no small expense and had read them through with the greatest diligence and unwearied labor, I saw in them (God is my witness) a religion not so much of Mosesas Christian 75 … There I read thesame thingson original sin 76 , on Christ's atonement for it 77 …. on the fall of demons 78 , on the ranksof angels 79 , on purgatory 80 , on the punishments of hell 81 , which we daily read in Paul and Dionysius, Jerome and Augustine. 82 In terms of philosophy, you may really hear Pythagoras and Plato,whose doctrines are so akin to Christianfaith that our Augustine gives great thanks to Godthatthe books of the Platonists came into his hands. In short, there is hardly any dispute between us and the Hebrews … 69 I.e., God, who according to Christian theology made the universe. 70 See note 66. Pico uses the term ‘Hebrews’ to mean Jews both in ancient times and in his own era. 71 ‘Doctors’ of the Hebrews: Jewishscholars; ‘among us’ – i.e., Christians; Esdras orEzra, 6 th century BC Jewish priest and prophet, known from the Bible; Hilary: An early Christian bishop (c.300-367AD), who wrote against the Arian heresy; Origen,an early Church Father (c. 185-c. 254) and important Christian Neo-Platonist. 72 See footnote 66. 73 Paul was the follower of Jesus who began to spread the teachings of Jesus beyond the Jewish community. The quote is from I Corinthians 2:6. 74 See footnote 66. By tradition, Cabalistic teachings were only read by men over 40, as they were considered too dangerous and powerful for an immature person to read. 75 Pico interprets the rather ambiguous visions and descriptionsin Cabala in Christianterms. 76 ‘Original sin’ refers to the Christian belief that all humans are born sinful, due to the sin of Adam and Eve (the first humans, according to the Bible story) who disobeyed God by eating the fruitwhich God had forbiddenthem to eat. 77 This refers to the Christian belief that Jesus’ suffering by crucifixion paid for humans’ sins, and thus replaced thepunishment which humans deserve. 78 This refers to the Christian belief in evil beings called demons, who were once angels but rebelled against God. 79 There were believedto be different kinds and levels of angelic beings. 80 This refers to the Christian belief in a place of purification after death, in which those about to enter heaven are cleansed. 81 This refers to the Christian belief in a place of eternal punishment for those who have sinned. 82 Paul: See footnote 72; Dionysius: famous writings (probably of the late5 th Century A.D) with Christian, Greek and Jewish elements, which had a great influence on Christian theology; Jerome: 4 th - 5 th centuryFather of the Church; Augustine: Early Christianbishop (AD 354-430), who formulated a Christian version of Plato’s ideal world of forms in which the ideal world was with God, after Judgment Day.