有关澳洲气候的assignment代写-The climate of Australia
ABSTRACT: This paper is focus on the climate of Australia. Victoria, Western Australia (WA), South Australia, The Northern Territory, Queensland, New South Wales, Tasmania, The Capital Territory consist of Australia. This paper will analyze the climate on the base of these states. The climate of Victoria is characterized by a range of different climate zones, from the hot, dry zone in the northwest to the snowfield in the northeast. WA has a Mediterranean climate. South Australia varies in many aspects. The Northern Territory has two distinctive climate zones. Queensland has five predominate climatic zones based on temperate and humidity. New South Wales has an arid or semi-arid climate. Tasmania has a cool temperate climate with four distinct seasons. The Capital Territory is the similar as New South Wales. Under the influence of these types of climates, the major nature disasters are drought, bushfire, cyclone.
Key words: Mediterranean, Australian climate, rainfall, tropical, The Great Dividing Range, monsoon, evaporation
1.1.1. Motive and methods
Professor Xu, The teacher of <Beyond the kangaroo>, demanded us to write a paper of anything about Australia. So, I have surfed on the Internet and find a variety of information in order to determine my topic. Finally, I have chosen as my topic the climate of Australia. There are several reasons of my decision. First, I am majored in geography in my middle school, therefore it is much easier for me to analyze the climate from all kinds of aspects. Second, I hope that my paper will help those who want to study in Australia. Thus, this paper will realize it’s value. Last but the most important, I want to write a paper on my favorite subject. This paper will provide you a comprehensive analysis about the Australian climate. The way of the research firstly divides the country into eight parts. They are Victoria, Western Australia (WA), South Australia, The Northern Territory, Queensland, New South Wales, Tasmania and The Capital Territory. There are three steps to research the climate. The first step is the location of each state, which will influence the climate. Second step is the brief introduction of each type of climate, including its features, rainfall, temperature, snow and so on. Finally, the paper will analyze the reason one by one.
1.1.2. The definition of the climate
Climate (from Ancient Greek Klima, meaning inclination) is commonly defined as the weather averaged over a long period. The standard averaging period is 30 years, but other periods may be used depending on the purpose. Climate also includes statistics other than the average, such as the magnitudes of day-to-day or year-to-year variations. The Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (IPCC) glossary definition is:
Climate in a narrow sense is usually defined as the "average weather," or more rigorously, as the statistical description in terms of the mean and variability of relevant quantities over a period ranging from months to thousands or millions of years. The classical period is 30 years, as defined by the World Meteorological Organization (WMO). These quantities are most often surface variables such as temperature, precipitation, and wind. Climate in a wider sense is the state, including a statistical description, of the climate system.
Climate encompasses the statistics of temperature, humidity, atmospheric pressure, wind, rainfall, atmospheric particle count and other meteorological elemental measurements in a given region over long periods.
2 States and territories
Location: Victoria is a state of Australia, located in the south-east of the country. Geographically the smallest mainland state, Victoria is bordered by New South Wales, South Australia, and Tasmania on Boundary Islet to the north, west and south respectively.
2.1.2 Climate of this region
Climate: The climate of Victoria is characterized by a range of different climate zones, from the hot, dry Mallee region of the northwest to the alpine snowfields in the northeast of Victoria. Median annual rainfall ranges from less than 250 mm in parts of the Mallee to in excess of 1800 mm over some of the mountainous regions. To be more specific, Victoria has a varied climate despite its small size. It ranges from semi-arid and hot in the north-west, to temperate and cool along the coast. Victoria's main land feature, the Great Dividing Range, produces a cooler, mountain climate in the centre of the state.
Victoria's southernmost position on the Australian mainland means it is cooler and wetter than other mainland states and territories. The coastal plain south of the Great Dividing Range has Victoria's mildest climate. Air from the Southern Ocean helps reduce the heat of summer and the cold of winter. Melbourne and other large cities are located in this temperate region.
Temperature: The Mallee and upper Wimmera are Victoria's warmest regions with hot winds blowing from nearby deserts. Average temperatures top 30 °C (86°F) during summer and 15 °C (59°F) in winter.
The Victorian Alps in the north-east are the coldest part of Victoria. The Alps are part of the Great Dividing Range mountain system extending east-west through the centre of Victoria. Average temperatures are less than 9 °C (48°F) in winter and below 0 °C (32°F) in the highest parts of the ranges.
Rainfall: Victoria is the wettest Australian state after Tasmania. Rainfall in Victoria increases from north to south, with higher averages in areas of high altitude. Median annual rainfall exceeds 1,800 mm (71 in) in some parts of the north-east but is less than 250 millimeters (10 in) in the Mallee.
Rain is heaviest in the Otway Ranges and Gippsland in southern Victoria and in the mountainous north-east. Snow generally falls only in the mountains and hills in the centre of the state. Rain falls most frequently in winter, but summer precipitation is heavier. Rainfall is most reliable in Gippsland and the Western District, making them both leading farming areas. Victoria's highest recorded daily rainfall was 375 millimeters (14.8 in) at Tanybryn in the Otway Ranges on 22 March 1983.
2.1.3 Factors that contributes to the climate
The mountains of the Great Divide in Victoria attain a maximum height of 1986 meters at Mt Bogong near the town of Mt Beauty. There are several peaks in excess of 1500 meters in the northeast of Victoria. The Great Divide extends westwards almost to the South Australian border, with most peaks below 600 meters except in the mountainous area called the Grampians or Gariwerd, near Stawell, where Mt William's summit is 1167 meters.
To the west and north of the Great Divide the land flattens out to the dry inland plains. It is in the Mallee where the hottest temperatures in the State most commonly occur during summer, and where the annual median rainfall drops below 250 mm.
The coastal strip, south of the ranges, is generally wetter except in the far east where the Strzelecki Ranges shelter the East Gippsland District from the moisture-laden westerly winds. The climate changes across the State are reflected by marked changes in vegetation that ranges from Mallee scrub in the northwest, through irrigated plains in the north and the wetter grazing lands of the south to the forested mountainous country of northeastern Victoria.
2.2 Western Australia
Location: Western Australia is a state of Australia, occupying the entire western third of the Australian continent. It is bounded by the Indian Ocean to the north and west, the Great Australian Bight and Indian Ocean to the south, the Northern Territory to the north-east and South Australia to the south-east.
Population: 2.3 million
2.2.2 Climates of this region
Climate: The south-west corner of the state has a Mediterranean climate. The area was originally heavily forested, including large stands of the karri, one of the tallest trees in the world.
Rainfall: Average annual rainfall varies from 300 mm (12 in) at the edge of the Wheatbelt region to 1,400 mm (55 in) in the wettest areas near Northcliffe, but in the months of November to March evaporation exceeds rainfall, and it is generally very dry.
2.2.3 Factors that contributes to the climate
The size of the land mass is a major influence on the State's climate. There is a general decrease in rainfall and an increase in the range of temperatures experienced as one moves away from the coast. Owing to a history of geological stability, much of Western Australia consists of a broad, relatively featureless plateau between 300 and 600 meters above mean sea level, with only the Pilbara and the Kimberley having any major areas of rugged country. The highest peak is Mount Meharry at 1251 meters, in the Hamersley Range. The highest land in the south is to be found in the Stirling Range, where Bluff Knoll reaches 1096 meters. Though less pronounced than in most other States, topographic features do exert a significant influence in some areas. Near the lower west coast, for example, a rapid increase in rainfall can be measured from the coastal plain to the top of the Darling Range, followed by a marked decrease to the east. Inland temperatures are modified to some degree by the elevation of the land, but the effect is not large.
2.3. South Australia
Location: South Australia is a state of Australia, located in the southern central part of the country. It covers some of the most arid parts of the continent; with a total land area of 983,482 square kilometers (379,725 sq mi), it is the fourth largest of Australia's six states and two territories.
Population: 1.6 million代写assignment
2.3.2. Climates of this region
Climate: The climate of South Australia varies, from hot and dry in the interior to the milder, wetter climates of the southern Mount Lofty Ranges and the southeast coast of South Australia. Median annual rainfall ranges from about 100 mm in the area east of Lake Eyre to more than 1000 mm on the higher parts of the Mount Lofty Ranges. The southern part of the state has a Mediterranean climate.