The characteristics of the knowledge staff flow, reasons and countermeasures
【 abstract 】 in the knowledge economic rapid development today, as knowledge carrier of frequent flow between knowledge workers in enterprises. How to reduce the loss of knowledge staff loss brings to enterprises, how to effectively motivate and manage knowledge workers make its maximum creativity, will become a big problem in the enterprise human resources management. Based on the characteristics and the causes of knowledge workers flows, the impact of the flow , the analysis of flow, starting from the present situation of the knowledge employee turnover, and put forward the enterprise should correctly treat the rational flow of the knowledge-type employees, and take the appropriate measures to minimize their frequent flow.
【 key words 】 the knowledge employee turnover causes countermeasures
Entering the 21st century, the arrival of knowledge economy has become a reality. To master the most valuable knowledge in knowledge economy, the capital of knowledge workers has increasingly become the precious resources of enterprise more competitive. This environment created a demand for the flow of knowledge workers. High flow of the knowledge-type employees also brings to the enterprise the increased cost of various aspects, and even the loss of their core competitiveness. Therefore, the enterprise must keep lasting development, we must give full play to the positive role of the knowledge-type employees, reduce the flow of knowledge workers.
I, the concept and characteristics of the knowledge workers
(1) the concept of knowledge workers
About the definition of knowledge workers, as is by the American scholar Peter drucker, refers to "those who grasp and use symbols and concepts, use knowledge or information to the people who work". Canadian management expert Francis HeRui ratio is defined as "those who create wealth when the brain is more than people with the hand, they use their own creativity, analysis, judgement, comprehensive, design to bring added value to product". TuHaiQun domestic scholars think the knowledge staff is "refers to is engaged in the production, creation, extension and application of knowledge, for the enterprise or organization with the knowledge capital appreciation, and professional personnel". Yet on the knowledge staff is unity is defined as: "the knowledge staff is to point to have professional knowledge and skills, the pursuit of work autonomy and constantly self value increment, have strong ability of learning innovation of individual employees."
(2) the characteristics of knowledge workers
Compared with the general staff, knowledge workers have their own distinctive features, concrete can be summarized as follows: 1. Has the high personal quality and ability. 2. Has strong independence and autonomy. 3. Strong desire. 4. Engaged in high value-added creative labor. 5. Continuous learning ability and innovative. 6. Strong flow.
(3) the present situation of mobility of knowledge workers
With the development of science and technology, increasingly highlight the importance of knowledge workers. But fewer, difficult management, and frequent flow become the main situation of knowledge workers. Current our country the knowledge employee turnover phenomenon is mainly manifested in different areas and different types of flow trend among enterprises. Regions to is: the poor areas to developed areas, small and medium-sized cities, large and medium-sized cities - core cities - international will present trapezoidal stratified flow. Enterprise flow is: the state-owned enterprises to private enterprises, foreign to the original native wholly foreign owned enterprise, the new joint venture into a wholly foreign owned enterprise, eventually become a international talent.
II, the characteristics of the knowledge employee turnover
(1) the concept of the knowledge employee turnover
Knowledge staff flow is refers to the knowledge staff to achieve personal career through with unit selection changes in the work unit, namely the work from one state to another state changes. According to different working condition to determine the factors, the knowledge staff flow can be divided into different types, such as occupation flow, flow between industries or between regions between the flow and so on.
According to the knowledge staff service object is changed, the knowledge staff and flow can be divided into the organization and organizational flow. Flow within the organization usually organized by the personnel department done through promotion or transfer, is the result of organization and management behavior. And flow between the groups, namely people usually understand the knowledge employee turnover.
(2) the characteristics of the knowledge employee turnover
1. The flow of the initiative. The knowledge staff has the very strong judgment ability and self organization judgment. When they found that leadership style, organizational support, enterprise management idea, outlook, etc not satisfied or personal development opportunities are lacking, they will take the initiative to leave, seek personal - organization to a higher degree of match. In terms of flow, knowledge workers showed a strong initiative and enthusiasm.
2. The flow imbalance. As the world economic development imbalance, the backward technology environment in developing countries can't effectively compete for talent in the developed countries, thus resulting in the loss of their talents. Within a country characterized by a large number of knowledge workers from the outlying and poverty-stricken areas to developed areas.
3. The diversity of flow channel. Talent market of our country basic established talent communication network covering the whole country. Talent market provides the most basic knowledge staff flow channels. For high-level knowledge workers use headhunters or more directly in the form of talent flow. In respect of professional technical knowledge employees, the related media and Internet has played a pivotal role.
4. The internal flow industry. Knowledge workers often take the initiative to leave because of various reasons, from the industry point of view, the knowledge employees to concentrate on the emerging knowledge intensive industry. The high industry concentration and high liquidity, caused in the industry, frequent flow of the knowledge-type employees.
5. The wide range of flow. Multilateral flow trend of knowledge-based employees across countries and regions, at the same time the flow of talent circulation pattern is obvious. On the one hand, the talent to flow more developed area than in area. In addition, in recent years, the demand for talent in the asia-pacific region has prompted more and more talents backflow.
III, the analysis of the causes of the knowledge employee turnover
(1) personal factors
1. The knowledge staff has the characteristics of flow through value-added. Knowledge staff may be more loyal to their professional, working in an enterprise is for them to gain work experience or study related technologies, once the goal to achieve, they will choose to wider development space of enterprise learning new knowledge, through increased value flow.
2. Psychological contract cannot be carried out. "Psychological contract" refers to the organization and the knowledge staff interaction situations, employees' individual belief system for mutual responsibility and obligation. Most of the knowledge workers in the enterprise, has a relatively high voice they believe oneself ability, on the basis of fully tend to require organizations meet the requirements of the psychological contract, otherwise it may be because not satisfied and flowed from the enterprise.